How far should I go back to in my resume? By Matthew Coppola


Although every candidate’s application and background will vary in determining how far you’re your resume should go, in general terms usually the past ten to fifteen years is a reasonable time frame to go back. Any time before that can list as an outline.

The main point to be aware of is not to make the resume too long and lengthy. Generally speaking, a reasonable length of a resume maximum 4-6 pages long depends on the complexity and scope of the candidate’s background.

The main point to take away from this is to be mindful of the person who is reading your application and their time.

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Are you interested in having your resume and cover letter professionally revamped and written? 

Client Centric Executive Employment Solutions is an Australian based business that assists with CV/Resume writing, addressing key selection criteria and covering letters to help you with giving your best foot forward to an employer. Please feel free to visit their website: www.clientcentric.com.au

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Is there any need to include colours in my resume? By Matthew Coppola


Colours can be an expression of creativity and certainly for a creative type resume, making use of colours and imagery of the individual’s work may actually help with their application – but it is more about showcasing their work. So, then, do colours really make a difference?

Personally, I don’t think so.

The question we want to ask ourselves, is an employer really going to choose one resume over the other because they liked the candidate’s use of the colour blue?

Again, personally, I don’t think so.

The use of black and white colours helps to make the resume look more professional and easy to read. Colours can be a distraction from what is actually written.

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Are you interested in having your resume professionally revamped and written? 

Client Centric Executive Employment Solutions is an Australian based business that assists with CV/Resume writing, addressing key selection criteria and covering letters to help you with giving your best foot forward to an employer. Please feel free to visit their website: www.clientcentric.com.au

“Effective job hunting is about making tailored job applications that match the vacancy and employer” By Matthew Coppola


Please take a moment now to think about the heading of this article:

“Effective job hunting is about making tailored job applications that match the vacancy and employer”

Job hunting means to be actively looking and applying for work. Scouring job vacancy websites and apps to find the right job or one that you are interested in doing. You like the employer and the job and feel that you are well suited to the position. More often than not however, many will send out job applications one after the other, with a standard covering letter, generalist resume and a couple sentences in the email saying that they are interested in the position and all about them. That’s right, all about them. 

Well it shouldn’t be all about the job seeker but rather all about the resume. You do not need to elaborate on everything you have done in your 20 year career. Rather, talk about the experience that relates to the job.

Many people send out job applications that are not tailored for the position and that actively addresses the employer’s interests. If you are a fire fighter but want to work in an accounts office, well then you wouldn’t send your firefighting resume and talk about how many fires you have eliminated when writing your job application. No, rather you would change your resume for office work and address the requirements for the position and how you feel your skills and experience would add value in that position and for the employer in meeting their business goals.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Client Centric Executive Employment Solutions

Holding a graduate degree in Commerce, majoring in Economics at Curtin University, as well as a post graduate certificate in Career Education and Development at RMIT University, Matthew brings with him more than 6 years experience working in the fields of business development, marketing, soft-skills training and employment services industry. He has gained significant exposure in working with employers in sourcing staff as well as assisting jobseekers in promoting and marketing themselves to employers and securing sustainable employment outcomes. He is currently working in Disability Employment Services where he assists clients with mental health disabilities in finding and keeping satisfying and gainful employment and helping them overcome and work around barriers to employment. 

He has helped many job seekers secure employment by training and coaching them in the art of being interviewed and giving the interviewer a positive and lasting impression. He knows how to sell and market a job seeker to an employer and he imparts this knowledge to his clients in helping them sell and market themselves in an interview.

This article can be viewed by clicking here

The 5 signs of a quality build CV, by Matthew Coppola


As it gets harder and harder to secure employment and stand out from other job candidates, it is becoming increasingly important to have a powerful resume that really sells and markets your skills and abilities to prospective employers.

Here are 5 signs of what makes a quality CV:

1. It is specific

Is your resume effectively marketing you toward one particular type of industry or role? Or does your CV have little direction about what career you are heading towards and how you define yourself in your field?

2. It is well written and structured. 

The CV must flow and be readable. Employers have limited time reading your resume so you want to make sure that it has clear headings, bullet points, and is in order from your name to the selling summary then competencies and your education and training and so forth.

3. It expands on your skills and experience and clearly outlines your success. 

Mention some of your notable achievements both at work/school. If you have recently graduated, make sure that the CV reflects the grades you achieved and some successful projects you completed. A brief summary will be sufficient.

For every job role, make a list underneath it of your achievements with that employer/in that position.

4. It is readable.

Does it sound clear to you when your read it aloud? Does it make sense? This is important. You want to impress the person looking at your CV with your exceptional skills in your attention to detail.

5. It is personalised.

Make sure that it is tailored for the positions that you are applying for. Use key words employers in the industry are looking for and make sure that your CV is a good reflection of what is best practice/desirable in the industry.

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Client Centric Executive Employment Solutions

For information on professional CV writing services, please visit http://www.clientcentric.com.au/#!resume-writing-services/ck40

You can also view this article by clicking here

Should I put my referee’s contact details on my resume or not?


Recently I was asked by a client what is best practice,when it comes to putting the contact details of their referees, on their resume. Some argue that if you do include their phone number, the prospective employer may call them without you knowing and catch the referee person off guard. Some feel that it might cause “bad feelings” and put off the referee from ever in the future providing advice. Well it really is a personal preference but when I write resumes for my clients, I do include the contact details and phone numbers but have an asterix (*) after the referees which says:

*Please advise me first before making contact.

From past experience in communication with employers, I feel that it can be annoying for them if they have to ask you for the contact number, then the time that takes can be consuming, especially if you don’t have their contact details on hand right away. So by having the details and that asterix, it allows the employer to make that quick confirmation call, allows you to quickly advise your referees and the reference call is made as soon as possible!

I have a video on-line entitled: “Should I have referees available upon request” and this can be viewed by clicking here

If you are interested in having a new resume written, assistance with responding to key selection criteria, I welcome you to visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au

What Makes a Good Resume Stand Out?


Time and time again I have clients asking me that they apply for so many jobs but they never hear back from an employer. Some have even applied for jobs to only minutes later receive an email saying that their application has been unsuccessful. They then ask themselves “Did the employer even bother looking at my resume??” The unfortunate explanation is no they did not fully consider your resume because they would have been inundated with hundreds if not thousands of resumes put forward for the job but your resume did not make the cut.

So then what makes a good resume stand out from the rest? Well firstly it needs to captivate the audience. Your name should be large and the focal point at the top of your resume. Then underneath that should be a good summary about you and what you have to offer to an employer. This is the part where you sell yourself. That’s resume, writing a resume and applying for a job is a selling game. You are the product. You also are the salesman.

A good salesman knows his products. He knows the ins and outs. He is prepared for whatever question comes his way and ready for any form of criticism. He believes in product is firm in the belief that his product is one of the best.

So there is your answer. A good resume is one that sells you to the employer. That’s what will make you stand out from the rest because most people simply do not know how to sell themselves and that is where the people who get the jobs succeed in life. They know how to sell themselves.

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Author: Matthew Coppola,  Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

What Does The “Generation Gap” Mean?



The phrase “generation gap” implies that a great chasm exists between the old and the young, and that it must be immensely difficult to overcome. Kingsley Davis first wrote about it (in a business sense) in 1940. He thought that rapid social change was responsible for this parent-child-youth type of conflict. His initial article spurred a massive amount of research about the generation gap, with a range of results.

There is a perception that one generation is vastly different from the other in terms of values, attitudes, and lifestyle; that cross-generationally, we do not have things in common. When we step back and really examine the situation however, although the conditions do exist, they are actually not that common. What we see are the ways that previous generations have great influence on younger generations despite also having differences, and the ongoing idea that each generation cannot possibly meet the needs of the other.

As a result, we need to view the gap as something that is far shallower and less confrontational than the media or business writers generally portray. In reality, both in the workplace and at home, there is lots of reciprocity between the generations, especially once they come to know and understand one another, even just a little.

The presence of difference comes out of several things that we know for sure. For example, there are currently four, and sometimes even five generations, working in one place. Each generation has specific defining characteristics about how they approach life, not just work.

Here is the breakdown:

Silent Generation (sometimes called Radio Babies), born 1930-1945.
Baby Boomers, born 1946-1964 in the US, to 1966 in Canada, to 1971 in the United Kingdom.
Generation X, born 1965-1976.
Generation Y, born 1977-1985.
Millennials, born 1986 and later.

There was a period in the late 1990s when managers would hire just about anyone with a heartbeat to fill a position. At that time, the United States was short approximately three to four million workers. By 2010, they will be short 10 million workers because the shift of Baby Boomers out of the workforce will continue, and there are far less people coming behind them.

In addition to what is a purely physical numbers game, there are other things to consider. About 80% of people in the workforce don’t want to go to work at the beginning of their workweek, and 97% of them would change occupations if they became financially independent.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Don’t Gossip at Work


Let’s face it. We all love a good gossiping session. We love to talk about what other people are doing or what they have done when it has nothing to do with us. It is what workers do when they have nothing better else to do or they are in a mindless job. Because they are in a job that doesn’t require much thinking, they need something to stimulate their brain and so they occupy themselves with innate chatter and malicious stories.

The problem is, if you find yourself in a gossiping session and you don’t join in, your coworkers may see you as stuck up or taking sides. But really, the gossiping needs to stop with you. If you see something or hear something, don’t spread the gossip at all. And if you find yourself in a gossiping session, look as though you are gossiping without ever doing it. Don’t add to the conversation just say “Oh ok, I didn’t know that” and leave it there.

The problem with gossiping is not only that it can all be false information and is far from the truth, but if others see that you are gossiping, they are less likely to trust you. But if you don’t go about spreading gossip, your colleagues will see you as a loyal friend and someone that they can confide in and who wont go about spreading the information.

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Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Why Being Attractive Get’s You Further in Your Career



There is no question about it, and statistics will back it up, good looking and handsome people get on better with other people than those not so fortunate in the looks department. The better looking you are, the less harder you have to work to make friends. Let’s face it, guys would you rather take Susan Boyle out on a date or Megan Fox? And girls would you say yes to going out on a date with Johnny Depp or Steve Tyler? I rest my case.

Now attractiveness is very hard to define, and we all have different perceptions as to what we see as attractive. If we ignore the obvious impairments such as big noses and buck teeth, all of which can be corrected with a trip to the dentist or plastic surgeon, is difficult to define. Then there are some people like Julia Roberts and Sean Penn who aren’t exactly classically good looking, but we find them attractive due to their charm, magnetism and charisma. They have presence and personality that grabs your attention.

You too must have these non-physical attributes and qualities that are attractive. Besides they are much easier to obtain then looks anyway. Looks are superficial and most people can see past them. But if they look past your looks and see that your personality isn’t so good looking, it wont work in your favour at all,  no matter how many blessings you’ve been given in the looks department. Dress well, have good grooming, and cultivate a smile. Not much to ask for to give yourself a boost in being attractive to your colleagues and clients. Looks are all in the smile and the eyes.

Do you slouch at work? Look scruffy? If so, you need to change. When walking around the office and to a meeting, stand erect, proud and assured. Give a firm handshake. Show your confident and happy to be wherever you are. Then your colleagues and clients will gain trust and confidence in you. This is what it means to be attractive. Not looking exactly like Brad Pitt or Michael Buble. Just walk and talk like them!

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Getting Angry at Work Just Isn’t Worth It!


oo many people are angry at work. Workplace violence is an extreme example. Even short of violence, every day you see managers and co-workers who are mad at each other, their co-workers, their employees, their bosses, their customers, the company, and the world itself.

Anger interferes with teamwork and productivity. It also creates an environment that is negative, hostile, and frightening. Companies face legal pressures to prevent this type of environment and from employees’ points of view, anger takes the fun out of work. Because anger is a natural emotion, it would be unrealistic to ask people not to feel it. Instead, the goal is to help – and sometimes, require – that people deal with their anger less aggressively and more appropriately.

Problems don’t come from anger. Problems come from the negative ways people express anger.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Why Your Goals Should Be S.M.A.R.T



Establishing clear goals in writing is the responsibility of managers and their superiors, and of managers and their staff. This should occur at least annually, and should be aligned with the company’s corporate mission and strategic plan. The way we word our goals is the biggest factor in helping us achieve them. And some smart person has come up with an acronym to help us remember these characteristics. Goals should be SMART!

S=SPECIFIC
When we make our goals too general we aren’t able to visualize them, and if we can’t see them, we have a hard time devoting our efforts toward reaching them. We are more apt to do a good job of redecorating the bathroom if we have a picture in our mind of how it will look when it’s done.
M=MEASURABLE
If we can’t measure a goal, we have no idea how close we are getting to reaching it, and that can be de-motivating. For example, you have decided you will save some money from every pay check in order to take a vacation this summer. But if you don’t set a specific amount each pay, and you don’t have an amount you want to reach, you are less apt to put the money away.
A=ATTAINABLE/ACHIEVABLE
We sometimes think that we should set high targets or goals for ourselves, in order to grow and stretch. Well, we do want to grow and stretch, but if we set goals that aren’t do-able, we soon get discouraged and we stop trying. The really high achievers in the world know this. They set goals that they know they can reach, and when they get there, they set another goal they know they can reach. They climb the mountain one foot at a time.
R=RELEVANT
Goals have to make sense, and have some importance, or they will soon be discarded. Set goals that make sense to you.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

How to Write a Resume Concisely and Clearly


All writing should be clear, concise, and correct. Good writers use plain language to express clear meaning. They write in a simple style that uses every day words. They do not use showy words and ambiguous expressions in an effort to dazzle or confuse readers. They write to express ideas, not to impress others. What do you think this manager meant in the following message?

Personnel assigned vehicular space in the adjacent areas are hereby advised that utilization will be suspended temporarily Friday morning.

You would probably have to read that sentence several times before you understand that you are being advised not to park in the lot next door on Friday morning. Clear messages contain words that are familiar and meaningful to the reader. Whenever possible, use short, common, simple words to say what you mean. This applies not only to resume writing, but also email etiquette and letter writing.

Don’t be redundant.

Have you ever seen a sentence like, “I watched the colorful sun set in the west,” or, “I took off the purple colored shirt”? Now, if the sun were setting in the east, that would be something to comment on, but we all know that the sun sets in the west. Likewise, you can safely assume that your readers know that purple is a color.

Similarly, watch out for words that mean the same in your resume: “We drained and emptied the tank,” could be replaced by, “We emptied the tank.”

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I am an experienced and qualified Employment Consultant. I provide assistance with tailored professional resumes, customised cover letters, key selection criteria responses and keyword optimised LinkedIn profiles.

All of my work is not only professionally written and edited but also has a unique design,  making sure that your job application will stand out from the rest. I work with clients all across Australia including Perth, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart and Adelaide. Having a professionally written resume will ensure your CV stays ahead of the rest. Contact me today to find out how I can help you land your dream job.

Please feel free to email me at info@matthewcoppola.com or call me on 0415 559 233.

Is It Good to Include a Summary for Each Employer you Worked for?


In every resume there is a part of it set aside for employment history, this includes employer name, their email address, your job title, duration worked and job responsibilities and key achievements if applicable. However it doesn’t stop there. In the resumes I write for clients, I include a summary which I put before the list of job responsibilities/key achievements. It looks something like this:

Workfind is contracted by the Commonwealth Government to provide assistance for unemployed people, particularly those who are long-term unemployed and receive income support payments via Centrelink. My role as Recruitment Consultant was to canvass employers and meet with…

The reason why I put this in my resumes is that it helps the understand better about the company the jobseeker worked for and how their role fitted in with the whole picture. It also shows that the jobseeker respects and appreciates the employer they worked for and what kind of business they are in. Ask any employer and they will tell you that they really appreciate it when a candidate shows personal interest in not only the role but also the company they are applying for work with. This is helped by the candidate doing previous research before hand about the company, when it started, their products/services and market/s they sell to.

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Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Why do we need a resume?


For the most of us, unless we own a business or work in the entertainment/arts industry, need a resume. According to Wikipedia, a resume can be defined as  a document used by persons to present their backgrounds and skills, with the intention of gaining employment with a prospective employer. So someone might start a business, now to cope with the increasing demand for their business will hire staff. To hire the right staff, the employer wants to make sure they know what they’re doing. For example the job might be for a printer operator. Now this kind of job requires skills, and depending on the complexity and level of supervision in the role, will also require some degree of experience performing similar duties. Different professions and trades have different styles of resumes used. For example, a resume for a computer programmer would have a separate page outlining the software programs and languages including months/years of experience the jobseeker has had. But a business development executive would have their resume written in a way which focuses on sales targets reached and clients worked with.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Why it isn’t worth arguing at work


One thing I have learnt in my career is that arguing with someone, especially when you know all too well that your right, just does not work. I’m not referring only to your colleagues, but also to senior level management, key stakeholders and your clients. There may be a number of instances when your at work, and you completely disagree with what someone says or proposes to do and vice versa.

Unfortunately in our society, people have adopted this attitude that the world revolves around themselves and that admitting to being in the wrong displays a sense of weakness. Therefore naturally what do we do? Well we argue back ofcourse! This creates tension and distrust in the office making it ever more difficult to work further with someone you have had a disagreement with and both parties remain stubborn.

Is it really worth arguing at work with someone? Really? Is it? Well, the short terms gains may be you prove the other person wrong and you walk away with your head held high. But there are no long term gains. Do you think that person who you humiliated and proved wrong by arguing with them, is going to back you up when the boss asks for referrals for a promotion? Well, unlikely.

Dale Carnegie once said in his book How to Win Friends and Influence People:

“A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still”

Even if you prove to someone that they are wrong, but more importantly you do it against their will by arguing, they will still walk away thinking that they were still in the right. It really isn’t worth arguing,. You end up making the other person even more convinced than ever, that they were right.

So, what should you do instead of arguing? Well firstly hear the other person out. Commend them on their idea/opinion/plan whatever it may be. That is, acknowledge them. Then say that adding on from what they say, you feel/believe (not your opinion is) that…….then say but I could be wrong, I usually am. And there you have it, humility shown at its finest. The other person will see the humility shown and you have already boosted their ego by actually acknowledging them, therefore they will be more likely to hear your opinion and may even be persuaded.

Why we feel nervous on the first day of a new job, by Matthew Coppola



Yesterday I started my first day on the job at a job find company in Victoria. Although it was only an internal transfer for the same position with the same company, I still felt nervous, timid and shy around my new fellow colleagues. I understand now just what its like for my job seekers when they start a new job. The emotions that they would be going through and how hard it can be to get back into the workforce especially if they have been out of work for quite some time. It is a big change and can be a stressful period in ones life.  Similar to the emotions involved in moving houses, changing jobs is just as stressful, if not worse. But why is it that we feel nervous on the first day on the job?

There are number of reasons why we feel nervous on the first day of our new job. Even today I had first hand experience with what it felt like to start working in a new office with new coworkers I have never met before until today. It was extremely nerve racking. I made the biggest mistake in the beginning. I accidentally arrived to work late and so I was stressed in the morning to begin with. I now see why it is extremely important to go visit the new workplace before a job start, say the day before, so then in the morning you wont be stressed and will know exactly how long it will take to get to work and where to park. But thankfully I soon forgot about being late after apologizing and explaining my reason why. I was also nervous because everyone knew eachother and they had built up this team culture and felt so comfortable around eachother. But I realized that they werent going to change to fit in with me. I had to change to fit in with them. I made sure that I introduced myself to everyone in the office and that I joined in with conversation and laughter the team were having. Because I made the effort to be part of their team culture, they made the effort to warmly welcome me.

Then by the end of the day it struck me! I finally realized why we always feel nervous when starting a new job. Its because it means change for us and moving away from what we are familiar with. In Psychology, we learn that the brain loves the familiar. When we move out of our comfort zone it can create a real shock to our brain. For instance, why is it that we always feel comfortable in our own bed then in someone else? And its for that very reason. So to really overcome the tensions and anxieties in starting a new job, we need to make an earnest effort to get to know our fellow colleagues and show interest in the workplace environment and culture.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Why you need to be passionate about your job to succeed, by Matthew Coppola



I have been working for an employment services organisation for over 7 months now, and just recently I was offered an internal transfer to another office within the company over in Melbourne. But to ensure that my transition is as smooth as possible, in the last week working at my previous office in Perth, I had another employee who would be taking over my role to job shadow me. I thought this would be easy and I could teach someone the best of everything I knew, but how wrong was I.

The person job shadowing me had absolutely no interest what so ever in the job and the industry. It wasnt that they told me they werent interested, it was in their body language and the actions they made which made me come to the conclusion they werent interested in the job and hence would’nt perform once in the job.

Ill give you a bit of background about my job. I am an employment consultant for a Job Services Australia organisation. When a job seekers goes on welfare benefits, they are referred to a Job Services Australia organisation. My job is to reverse market job seekers based on their skills and experience, to suitable businesses, so then they can go off Centrelink benefits. Like most jobs, I have Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) to meet. So you need to have self-discipline and personal drive so that you can place as many job seekers into employment and meet your KPI’s.

When I first started in this job, I was really passionate about placing people into employment. I also had the added pressure of meeting my KPI’s but I knew that placements would come after regular and quality reverse marketing. What has driven me to succeed is passion, dedication, self-discipline and just simply enjoying my job. Plus I want my career to stay in recruitment. But when I had this person job shadow me, she displayed none of those traits. Sure, she doesnt necessarily have to enjoy her job, but at least show some interest in the job.

—–—

I am an experienced and qualified Employment Consultant. I provide assistance with tailored professional resumes, customised cover letters, key selection criteria responses and keyword optimised LinkedIn profiles.

All of my work is not only professionally written and edited but also has a unique design,  making sure that your job application will stand out from the rest. I work with clients all across Australia including Perth, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart and Adelaide. Having a professionally written resume will ensure your CV stays ahead of the rest. Contact me today to find out how I can help you land your dream job.

Please feel free to email me at info@matthewcoppola.com or call me on 0415 559 233.

Why do business development professionals struggle with administrative work?



Put me in the spotlight in front business professionals and I will flourish. Put me on the phone to a prospective client and I will organize a meeting with them. Put me in front of a client who wants to order 10 of your company’s product and I will persuade him to order twice as much. But put paperwork and administrative duties in front of me and I wont be able to cope. Does this sound like you?

If you answered yes, well your not alone! Most salespeople and business development professionals struggle at coping with admin work. This part of the gig usually makes up 30% of a salesperson’s role, however some positions may require more time depending on the industry and the level of compliance required.

Despite this being shortfall of most people in sales, it is something that needs to be done and unfortunately wont go away. I for myself will admit this is something I need to work on in my personal development including having effective time management skills. There are sales roles out there that do not require much administrative work, just as long as you can talk the talk, you will be fine. However, there are some jobs like I mentioned earlier which require more of your working week dedicated to administrative duties,. These can include positions in semi Government companies and also roles where everything needs to be documented and compliance is king.

But if you find yourself in a sales role where you are struggling with the level of administration work required, then it is best to resign and find another role which  you can sell and build business relationships till the cows come home and still be on top your admin work.

————

Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

What is Comprehensive Value Chain Analysis By Matthew Coppola


Comprehensive Value Chain Analysis

Do what you do best. Leave the rest to others.

What is involved in Value Chain Analysis?

Your organisation will most likely engage in two types of business activities. Firstly are the activities that are purely intended to meet your customers’ demands and secondly, are those that although may not be directly involved in the making of your firms’ product, still add to the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation.

The value chain is concerned with all those activities which add value to your business and your customers.

Understanding the value chain and how it affects your organisation and ultimately your customers is critical in successfully delivering value. Everyone is involved in the value chain. Starting from your employees to supervisors to suppliers and ending at your customers.

Our Comprehensive Value Chain Analysis service involves a detailed and thorough examination of the business activities performed in your organisation.

We’ll discover which activities your firm has a competitive advantage in and which activities your firm should discontinue or outsource to another organisation.

What are the benefits?

The benefits to your business from our Comprehensive Value Chain Analysis can be:

  • Greater value added to your services
  • Improved efficiency and less redundancy
  • Stronger performing business operations and processes
  • Free flow of processes
  • Better understanding of end-to-end processes
  • Increased adaptability to change in the business environment
  • Better able to exceed the demands of your customers

What is Business Process Re-engineering? By Matthew Coppola


Business Process Re-engineering

Talk is good. Action is better.

Why should your organisation improve its business processes?

Business Processes Re-engineering can deliver greater value to your company.

Improvements to business processes will result in increased efficiency and effectiveness across the entire organisation from bottom up. Our skilled consultants will map out your firms’ processes and address all areas requiring change and improvement.

Rethinking about your businesses processes through business process change will add greater value to your business and end up with your customers being happier and more satisfied.

The below diagram explains our approach and how value can be delivered to your company from business process re-engineering:

The benefits to your company from our Business Process Reengineering service will be

  • Improved efficiency
  • Standardised processes
  • New and unique business concept
  • More value adding activities
  • Greater profit potential
  • Effective processes

What is Change Management? By Matthew Coppola



What is change management and why is it of benefit to your organisation?

Change management is a planned way of aligning people, organisations and processes from their current state to the ideal. Change is inevitable and must occur so organisations do not remain stagnant and continue pursuing the same activities all the time.

Increasing competition, government regulations and growing market forces spur change and the need to address these matters in business change is greater than ever.

Organisations must be capable of effecting change in order to succeed in the future.

What types of developments can be facilitated through change management? 

  • New product development
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Management changeover
  • Cost-cutting & Staff reductions
  • Employee resistances to change
  • Deployment of new technologies
  • Changes to business processes

Our skilled change managers will work alongside your management and staff to put into action business changes successfully, so your organisation remains constant and unwavering, ready to tackle the competition in a state of improved efficiency and superior abilities.

Contact us for a free consultation with one of our consultants today.

The following developments can be facilitated by our change management specialists:

  • New product development

Starting a new production line? Changing or removing products from a production line? Our change management specialists can facilitate this activity, ensuring products are adopted into the market smoothly, making certain that your organisation will cope with the change.

  • Mergers and acquisitions

Engaging in a merger with another company or acquiring other businesses? All levels of your company from bottom up, including management, staff and support systems will be affected in some way or another. Our change management specialists will align your staff and processes to meet the changes brought with a merger or acquisition.

  • Management changeover

A changeover of management in your company will likely bring new ideas, values, visions, processes and different ways of doing things. Our change specialists will guide your staff through the change, so they will be perfectly settled in with the new management arrangement.

  • Cost-cutting & Staff reductions

Organisations engaging in cost cutting and staff reductions experience a loss of employee morale and fear of loss of job among staff members, which results in less productive and unhappy workers. We can help by dampening the negative effect of job cutting throughout the whole organisation.

  • Employee resistances to change

Your employees may be happier doing the same things and will therefore resist or ignore any changes in your organisation. Our consultants can assist by facilitating in stages, the adoption of changes throughout all levels of your organisation.

  • Deployment of new technologies

The deployment of new technologies requires training and effective transition among all levels of your organisation. Our change managers are skilled in ensuring a smooth adoption of new technology in your organisation.

  • Changes to business processes

Our change management specialists can guide your staff and management to changes in your organisations business processes.

A Critical Analysis of the Long Term Dynamics of Capitalism, by Matthew Coppola


The following paper studies the opposing and unifying theories of two economists, John Stuart Mill and Thomas Robert Malthus, on the long term dynamics of capitalism, which entail aspects of growth, development and accumulation of a capitalist economy. The key topics studied by Malthus and Mill include labour, consumption, population growth, agriculture and property rights. These will be discussed from both a theoretical and empirical perspective in the following paper.

A major topic discussed by Mill and Malthus is on unproductive and productive labour in contributing to wealth creation in a capitalist economy. According to Malthus, a worker did not have to just produce wealth to be productive, but rather it is the value of what the worker produces that makes them productive. To Malthus, productive labour:

“should be susceptible to some sort of definitive valuation… [And] must add to the wealth of the country an amount at least equal to the value paid for such labour” (Malthus, 1836 p.46).

Thus according to Malthus, the worker is not productive unless the worker adds to society more than was paid their services, namely, labour.

In comparison to Malthus, the notion of value to the productive process was also adopted by Mill, as he saw value in objects produced by workers. Mill saw workers engaged in the manufacturing sector as being truly productive:

 “We should regard all labour as productive which is employed in creating permanent utilities, whether embodied in human beings, or in any animate or inanimate objects…[And] labour expended in the acquisition of manufacturing skills, I class as productive” (Mill, 1886 v.1, p.61).

In reverence to human capital, Malthus also put forth the idea that one must produce an object to be productive:

“no small portion of it is employed in acquiring the skill necessary to the production and distribution of material objects, as in the case of most apprenticeships” (Malthus, 1836 p.37).

However unlike Malthus, Mill was ignorant of the idea that unproductive labour has a positive impact on economic growth in capitalist economies. Those individuals in society who are identified as unproductive labour include those who attend to activities in the private service, such as capitalists, landowners, government ministers, executives, musicians, teachers, priests and so on. It also includes those who perform activities in the home, such as menial servants and child rearing. According to Malthus, ‘unproductive’ workers are valuable to the welfare and development of Society:

“that kind of labour which highly useful and important…may conduce indirectly to the production and security of material wealth” (Malthus, 1836 p.35).

Therefore, to Malthus, those who perform activities in the home, such as the upbringing of children and the maintenance of the home are valuable to society and have an indirect impact on production and development.

Having been a cleric from the Church of England, Malthus appreciated the value religious activities have to the development of society. For instance, the Catholic religion exemplify strong “pro-natalist ideologies” with teachings forbidding artificial forms of contraception and abortion. In particular, studies have shown that religious participation by youths has been linked to “a lower probability of substance abuse and juvenile delinquency [and] a lower incidence of depression among some groups” (Lehrer 2004, p.16).

However, Mill was sceptical of the impact religion has on the development of society. Mill is quoted for saying:

 “It is…evident that the greater number of missionaries or clergymen a nation maintains, the less it has to expend on other things; while the more it expends judiciously in keeping agriculturalists and manufacturers at work, the more it will have for other purposes” (Mill, 1886 v.1, p.61).

To Mill, spending on the unproductive labour of clergymen will receive no return or benefit to society, whereas maintaining a class of agriculturalists and manufacturers will generate a higher return, which can be allocated to other productive activities, which will again generate a positive return to society.

In terms of the role of government in a capitalist economy, both scholars viewed government as being productive indirectly. In comparison to Malthus, Mill was a right wing economist and believed that the government has an important role to play in society:

 “The labour of officers of government…is indispensable to the prosperity of industry, [and] must be classed as productive, even of material wealth, because without it, material wealth, in anything like its present abundance, could not exist. Such labour may be said to be productive indirectly” (Mill, 1886 v.1, p.61).

Thus both acknowledged that some form of Government was critical to the long term dynamics of capitalism. Without government, society would not have been able to generate such high material welfare and gain. Empirical evidence has indicated that non-military government capital is a significant input in the production function and has a high output elasticity of .39 (Karras & Evans 1994).

With respect to labour, both Mill and Malthus distinguished between productive and unproductive (U/P) consumption, including their effects on growth and development in capitalism. Mill made a distinction of productive and unproductive consumption to the labourer being:

“What they consume in keeping up or improving their health, strength, and capacities of work, or in rearing other productive labourers to succeed them, is productive consumption. But consumption on pleasures or luxuries, whether by the idle or by the industrious, since production is neither its object nor is in any way advanced by it, must be reckoned unproductive” (Mill 1848, book 1, chapter 3).

Mill saw unproductive consumption as having an undesirable influence to the wealth creation and growth of society, regarding U/P consumption as being undesirable and will only impoverish society:

“Whether they like it or not, the unproductive expenditure of individuals will pro tanto, tend to impoverish the community, and only their productive expenditure will enrich it” (Mill, 1886 Vol. 1, p.5).

Malthus on the other hand regarded U/P consumption as necessary to capitalism, particularly when productivity and innovation are at their utmost levels, which would ensure value and profit to expand:

“It would at once confound the effects even of production and consumption, as there is certainly no indirect cause of production so powerful as consumption” (Malthus 1836, p.45).

Another major topic studied by both economists was decreasing returns to agriculture and its effect on growth and development in a capitalist nation. This idea that agriculture would be subject to increasing returns, due to rising population unless supported by an increase in productivity, was adopted by Malthus.

Malthus contended that when the less fertile soil is used, the marginal product declines, while the rent increases due to inequality in the lands. Thus, the marginal expansion declines and output increases arithmetically, but at a diminishing rate.  Therefore due to decreasing returns to agriculture, and population rising in a geometrical progression without any checks to it, society would not be able to survive in a population-food supply struggle.

In regards to population and food supply, Malthus said:

The power of the population being…so much superior, the increase of the human species can only be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence by the constant operation of the strong law of necessity, acting as a check upon the greater power” (Malthus 1970, p.21).

This ‘subsistence’ level is the minimum level to reach survival. Malthus’ population dilemma posed a theoretical question on the checks to population and a practical question concerning solutions to the problem. There were positive and preventative checks. The positive checks to population growth included war, famine and pestilence. These tended to have an adverse impact. According to Malthus, the ultimate positive check to population is limited food supply. In Malthus’ own words:

 “It has been inferred, that and increase of population in any state, not cultivated to the utmost, will tend rather to augment than diminish the relative plenty of the whole society…a country cannot easily become too populous for agriculture; because agriculture has the signal property of producing food in proportion to the number of consumers” (Malthus 1809 Vol. 2 p. 275).

The preventative checks included moral restraint, contraception and abortion. These tended to have a positive impact on procreation. Mill also believed that contraception needed to be encouraged to keep a hold on population. However, Mill was against abortion or immorality, even having been jailed for distributing birth control pamphlets.

Malthus believed that the tendency to procreate would in fact rule over the cumulative effect of the checks to population growth. Therefore, unless the positive checks were greater than the preventative checks, the human population would thus be brought to a ‘subsistence level’ or just to a means of survival.

In Scandinavia for example, poverty has been eliminated locally, and even death from infectious disease is rare. This would not have occurred without low birth rates that have characterized the region. Not only in Scandinavia, but in other regions, low birth rates and death rates, strong education, a stable population, control of infectious disease and elimination of poverty and war are linked together in a “mutually re-enforcing circle of cause and effect” (Avery 2005, p.25). By contrast in many third world cities, contaminated water, polluted air, high birth rates, increasing population, poverty and resurgence of infectious disease are linked in a “self perpetuating causal loop” (Avery 2005, 25) with the result being a vicious circle.

Malthus failed to look at other checks that may have forestalled his gloomy conclusion. He had failed to separate sex and procreation. In the second half of the 20th century and well into the 21st century, advances have been made in modern birth control. Couples can have less constraint in regards to sexual activities. Therefore these additional checks can reduce the disparity between multiplication of the species and growth of the food supply.

Mill also adopted Malthus’ population principle, adding further that the population must:

 “work harder, or eat less, or obtain their usual food by sacrificing a portion of their customary comforts” (Mill Vol 4, p.109). 

Mill here was saying the reality is, if society wants to maintain their usual way of living or maintain their ‘customary comforts’ they must sacrifice either their time, consumption of goods, or activities that they have become accustomed to.

Malthus, like other classical economists of his time, was a pessimist. He envisioned that the capitalist system in the long run would face “pressure of population…decreasing response to human effort to increase supply of food and basic materials, limits to technical progress, subsistence wages, and falling profits” (Zweig, 1979 p.511) believing that in the end, technological improvement would not be sufficient to counteract the law of diminishing returns and depletion of natural resources.

Mill however was less sceptical about the capitalist system coming to a means of subsistence. Despite the classical economists such as Malthus and Smith realising that the growth of wealth could not continue indefinitely, only John Stuart Mill believed that a collapse of the system could be avoided and a stationary state achieved.

Economist Adam Smith described the stationary state as a situation of zero growth, in which the stock of goods is always the same, that is the quantity consumed is equal to the quantity supplied in the same time period, and rewards to the factors of production are at a minimum. The idea that the capitalist system would come to an end at the stationary state was feared by many classical economists including Malthus and Smith

According to Mill, once the stationary state was reached:

 “every increase in the demand for food, occasioned by increased population…unless there is a simultaneous improvement in production, diminish the share which on a fair division would fall to each individual” (Mill Vol 4, p.109).

Here Mill was saying that the demand for food must be balanced with supply. Mill described his ideal stationary state in book 4 of his Principles of Political Economy:

“The density of population necessary to enable mankind to obtain all advantages of co-operation and social intercourse has in all the most populous countries been attained. It is no good for a man to be kept perforce at all times in the presence of his species. A world from which solitude is extirpated is a very poor ideal . . . With every rood of land brought into cultivation . . . every hedgerow or superfluous tree rooted out, every flowery waste or dell ploughed up . . . there is no satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature. If the earth must lose that great portion of pleasantness which it owes to things that the unlimited increase of wealth would extirpate from it, for the mere purpose of enabling it to support a larger, but not better or a happier population, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that they will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compels them to it.” (Mill, 1848, book 4, ch.6).

However to reach the stationary state required extensive social changes and reforms, which Malthus and the other classical economists did not realise. Mill is quoted as saying:

“improvement here must be understood in a wide sense, including not only new industrial inventions…but improvements in institutions, education, opinions, and human affairs generally” (Mill, 1886 Vol. 1, p.105).

Mill argued that we need to educate society about contraception; that we need social reform and change.  He further added:

 “It is scarcely necessary to remark that a stationary condition of capital and population implies no stationary state of human improvement. . . Only thus can the conquests made from the powers of nature by the intellect and energy of scientific discoverers, become the property of the species and the means of improving and elevating the universal lot” (Mill, 1848, book 4, ch.6).

Assuming that the capitalist system keeps a restraint on population, Mill held a relatively optimistic view of the stationary state, in that it would be characterised by technical progress and past capital accumulation, which Mill extends into in his book, further saying:

“I am inclined to believe that the stationary state would be, on the whole, a very considerable improvement on our present condition. I know why it should be a matter of congratulation that persons who are already richer than any one needs to be, should have doubled their means of consuming things which give little or no pleasure except as representative of wealth…It is only in the  backward countries of the world that increased wealth is still an important object: In most advanced countries, what is economically needed is a better distribution to relieve poverty, of which one indispensable means is a strict restraint on population” (Mill, 1848, book 4, ch.6).

In his autobiography, Mill admits that this will all require a transformation of society and a character change in all classes of the population (Zweig, 1979 p.519). For instance, Mill was a strong advocate of contraception and safe sex attitudes of society. The only way to change people’s attitudes according to Mill was social change.

An idea that many classical economists held was that supply creates its own demand, known as Say’s Law. Attributed to the French economist, Jean-Baptiste Say, this law states that a market-capitalist economy will tend towards full employment of resources if there are flexible prices, interest rates and wages. Thus, according to Say’s law, it is inherently impossible that there will be long term crises of a market capitalist system.

Malthus rejected the idea of supply creating its own demand, arguing that supply reduces profit:

“It is impossible that the increased quantity of commodities, obtained by the increased number of productive labourers, should find purchasers, without such a fall of price as would probably sink their value below that of the outlay, or, at least, so reduce profits as very greatly to diminish both the power and the will to save” (Malthus, 1836 p.315). 

Mill, like most economists, attached great importance to the role of capital and capital accumulation. Mill argued that given Say’s law, increased levels of output and employment depend on the accumulation and investment of capital. The portion of investment in capital, that is, result of saving, is required to tide labour over a “discontinuous production period” (Ekelund & Hebert, 1990 p.170). This was known as the wages-fund doctrine:

“It is often forgotten that the people of a country are maintained and have their wants supplied, not by the produce of present labour, but of past. They consume what has been produced, not what is about to be produced. Now, of what has been produced, a part is only allocated to the support of productive labour; and there will not and cannot be more of that labour than the portion so allotted (which is the capital of the country) can feed, and provide with the materials and instruments of production” (Mill 1848, p. 64).

Stated simply, it was not a temporary state of affairs, but rather the unemployment of resources, was not considered probable because of Says Law (Ekelund and Hebert, 1990, p.170). Saving would automatically be turned into investment, another form of spending and a general glut would not occur. Thus the saving of those who do not consume all their income will be otherwise utilised by capitalists in purchasing factories, machines and the like to an expansion of value. Saving then becomes net investment:

S = In

So Mill agrees with Say’s Law, that what is saved will be invested. Mill only assumed a system whereby the supply curve was vertical, where we are always at full capacity.

Mill also argued that a general glut of goods from under- consumption was not possible. This ‘general glut’ was a general excess supply of commodities. To Mill, a lack of aggregate demand was not possible in the economic system. However, Malthus rejected the argument set forth by Mill and others that there could not be a general glut of commodities and gluts could only be in specific sectors:

“This doctrine [of gluts]…appears to me to be utterly unfounded, and completely to contradict the great principles which regulate supply and demand…M. Say, Mr Mill, and Mr. Ricardo…have fallen into some fundamental errors in the view which they have taken of this subject” (Malthus, 1836 p.315). 

For Mill, Ricardo and Say, the emphasis is on accumulation, supply, productive labour and capital. Malthus believed that emphasis on supply leads to the development of periodic crises of capitalism.

Malthus appropriated in his Principles of Political economy, that the promotion of supply and innovation can stimulate considerable wealth and value. It needs to be, however, balanced with demand:

“An inordinate passion for accumulation must inevitably lead to a supply of commodities beyond what the structure and habits of such a society will permit to be profitably consumed” (Malthus, 1836 p.325).

Mill argued that the passion for accumulation needs to be equalled by the passion for consumption:

“Saving in short enriches and spending impoverishes the community along with the individual; which is but saying…that society at large is richer by what it expends in maintaining and aiding productive labour, but poorer by what is consumes in its enjoyments” (Mill, 1886 Vol. 1, p.91).

In contrast Malthus argued that consumption and demand were not enough to promote accumulation and investment:

 “It has already been shewn that the consumption and demand occasioned by the workmen employed in productive labour can never alone furnish a motive to the accumulation and employment of capital” (Malthus, 1836 p.315). 

In terms of saving, Mill does not believe that saving is hoarded, but rather passed on to capitalists for investment. This was also adopted by Malthus who saw saving as desirable to the progress of wealth:

“If saving be allowed to be the immediate cause of the increase of capital, it must be desirable in all questions relating to the progress of wealth…No political economist of the present day can by saving mean mere hoarding…If the labour of menial servants be as productive of wealth as the labour of manufactures, why should not savings be employed in their maintenance, not only without being dissipated, but with a constant increase of their amount? (Malthus, 1836, sec. 2, p.39).

Thus both economists agree that saving is not hoarded by capitalists but rather employed into maintaining the productive labour force with a view to generating wealth and progress.

In Mill’s law of the increases of capital, he contends there is a tendency for investment to expand due to greater productive labour and expanding surplus:

“there will be no greater number of productive labourers in any country, or in the world, than can be supported from that portion of the produce of past labour which is spared from the enjoyments of its possessor, and is called accumulation [net investment]” (Mill 1871, vol.1 p.203)

Mill further added that the desire for accumulation is critical for capital expansion:

“All accumulation involves the sacrifice of a present for the sake of a future good…Durability is one of the chief qualities marking a higher degree of the desire of accumulation…accumulation depends upon uncertainty” (Mill 1871, vol.1 p.206). 

Eventually however, a stationary state is likely to come about due to diminishing returns and population increases, although this state is a fine one for Mill because stability and certainty exist at it.

Thus under capitalism, investment is a function of uncertainty:

I=f(U)

A rise in Instability has occurred since the second half of the 20th century in the global political economy, partly due to a lack of viable markets with increased uncertainty and a rise in competition with falling profits due to globalisation again this has increased uncertainty. The USA and USSR have also lost part of their hegemony. For example, the USA has lost part of its industrial hegemony to China, which has further contributed to uncertainty.

Another key area both economists agreed upon was that of property rights. In answering the critical question of what propels the nation’s growth and what limits it, Malthus included the sub-principle of security of property rights as a key factor:

“Security of property, without a certain degree of which, there can be no encouragement to individual industry, depends mainly upon the political constitution of a country, the excellence of its laws and the manner in which they are administered.” (Malthus 1836, p.309).

According to Malthus, without a minimum level of property security in a capitalist economy, business will have little incentive to conduct business activity and individuals will be discouraged from inventing new products, unless however effective laws and regulations are in place to prevent forfeiting.

In a Brazilian survey, 80 percent of 377 firms agreed that if better legal protection were available, they would invest more in internal research and would improve employee training. Survey evidence also suggests that in the United States alone, protection stimulates innovation and the social rate of return is higher than the rate of return to the innovator (Gould & Gruben, 1995).

Mill also agreed that property rights are important to encouraging economic activity.  He offered a number of ideas to private property rights, one being contracts in securing property rights:

“The right of property includes then, the freedom of acquiring by contract…The right to each to what has been produced, implies a right to what has been produced by others, if obtained by their free consent” (Mill 1848, p.26)

In regards to individual property, such as new ideas, products and process which one may invent, Mill further adds:

“Nothing is implied in property but the right of each to his (or her) own faculties, to what he can produce by them and to whatever he can get for them in a fair market; together with his right to give this to any other person if he chooses, and the right of that other to receive and enjoy it” (Mill 1848, p.28).

Mill concludes here that what one produces in a capitalist economy they should have the right to benefit from it and allow the market to value the product.

In light of the many ideas put forth, both economists differed in approach to their studies of political economy. Malthus tried to develop a pragmatic and practical form of political economy. Mill’s goal was to synthesis and summarizes all the economic knowledge up to his day. It is ironic since Mill did not read all of Malthus’ works. Malthus tried to relate his principles to the evolution of political economy, whereas Mill was less original in his works on political economy.

This paper has outlined the major economic ideas mirrored by the thoughts of two past prominent economists: Thomas Malthus and John Mill. Both economists could not foresee conditions pertaining to the long term dynamics of capitalism during the second half of the 20th Century and well into the 21st Century, had they occupied today’s mathematics and computers. Despite this, their views are far from irrelevant to today. Even though both scholars had their positions on key topics such as population growth, agriculture, labour, consumption and property rights, both believed that growth and development were desirable objectives to pursue. As we move into the 21st Century, it will be interesting to see Mills’ and Malthus’ views fulfilled.

Is the Stereotype of the Typical Australian of the 1940’s/50’s Correct? By Matthew Coppola


In the late 1940’s to the late 1950’s, the typical Aussie ‘bloke’ could be seen as rugged, fair minded, egalitarian, supportive of his mates in times of need, hard working, hard drinking,  honest, a competent bushman who could survive in the harsh Australian bushland, was critical of Authority and critical of those who put on “airs and graces”.

Is this statement stereotyping the true Australian in the 40’s and 50’s? Or is it true? The validity of this statement will be discussed.

After World War Two, Europe was pretty much devastated,  many people in Europe came and seeked refuge in Australia as illegal immigrants. So after a few years, or by the end of the 1950’s, Australia was very diverse in its culture. Australians enjoyed new foods, languages and religious beliefs. But did this change the stereotyped Australian or that statement really stereotyping Australians in the 1940’s and 1950’s?

To validate the statement, it is best to look at each quote and assess it as to whether it  was true or false. In the 1940’s and 50’s an american newspaper had fostered this belief that that the typical Australian lived out in the bush and was very rugged. The idea of Australians being “rugged in appearance” was because Australia was a very dry country and narrow minded Americans only saw Australia as just one big country outback with kangaroos hopping around, not realising that in Australia during that time, there were flourishing cities and towns, Australians were actually civilized.

The belief that Australians are “critical of Authority” has its roots dating back to the war whereby Australian soldiers were fighting alongside the British to invade Turkey. The Australian soldiers were known for not accepting the British commanding officers authority.

How to Effectively Build Credibility With Others, by Matthew Coppola


If we want to build our credibility with other people, we have to first of all be credible to ourselves. That means selling ourselves on our products or our services first. If you believe you are selling a good product, or offering a valuable service, you won’t have much difficulty selling that product or service to other people. Your body language (open, confident) and your tone of voice (positive, enthusiastic, pleasant) will tell them that you believe in what you are selling.

The first impression goes a long way to establishing your authority. You want a clean vehicle; polished shoes; trimmed, clean fingernails; clean, groomed hair; no heavy scent or body odour; and preferably only one bag. Women must have their briefcase and purse under control to prevent a cluttered look. (If you can, scale back to just a briefcase.)

As well, be aware of body movements. Don’t fiddle with your hair, tug at or adjust your clothing, play with your beard or moustache, or otherwise fidget. Fidgeting detracts from your credibility and your confidence.

If you have a demonstration, this can add to your credibility. However, ask permission first, and know exactly what you are doing. A demonstration that goes wrong sells nobody.

If you have testimonials, you can have several written up and ready to pass out, or you can have the names of people willing to be called. Please, make sure you ask their permission first and get the correct contact information for them. Keep any testimonials or contacts up-to-date.

How to Effectively Change a Client’s Emotion, by Matthew Coppola


Emotion has on a large effect on a person’s behaviour and by learning how to identify the clients feeling will help you provide a suitable solution. By changing the client’s emotion you may be able to help the client see your solution more clearly without the emotion that controls their behaviour.

E- Motion is contributed/created by motion

Several tips to help change or deal with emotion:

  • Change the client’s position- If they are sitting ask them to stand, or if they are standing ask them to take a seat. By changing the client’s body language the emotion will also change.
  • Ask the client several questions to lead them into a positive emotion. For example ‘sir I want to confirm your name is it john?” answer is “yes”. Several questions like this will help the client become more positive.
  • Use your volume to diffuse situations or anger. Slowly lower your voice.
  • Slow down your speech to help clients breathe and panic less.
  • Ask questions to help change what is on the clients mind.

Experience + MEANING= Feeling

Change the meaning of the situation for the client and the feeling they have towards it will change.

You can write an effective resume! By Matthew Coppola


A resume is your opportunity to present all of the facts that show you have the essential skills and experience for the job you wish to apply for. Writing an effective resume takes a while – you need to ensure that you have included all the correct information clearly written and laid out in your resume.

When constructing your CV, Keep in mind that its purpose is to influence a potential employer to contemplate you for the job over someone else. It is a compile of your skills, achievements, history of work and interests.

The difference stuck between obtaining an interview or not can take as little as two minutes. This is the time period is may take for an employer to consider you further as a potential employee or not. Although they may go over your resume twice, it really is that first impression, which comes from your resume.

When constructing your CV it is critical that you remember to make it clear, concise and easy to read quickly.  Your potential boss will only want to read information that is applicable to the position on offer, so think of your resume as a series of facts that are used in making a decision.

Always keep sentences short and list you’re most recent jobs first. Before deciding on the design of your resume, do some investigation and organize the content. Your CV should contain a number of information about yourself:

  • – Work History
  • – Summary about yourself and your career goal
  • – Educational achievements
  • – Career achievements
  • – References (at least 3)
  • – Skills and abilities
  • – Personal information including address & phone number

The arrangement you select for your CV will be reflected by your current personal situation. For example, if you are a recent graduate or about to start your first job, you may not have a job past to include in your CV.  If that is the case, I suggest including any unpaid work, work experience and part time jobs that you have performed over the years for friends and family.

I’m out of a job. What now by Matthew Coppola


Think about the following scenario. You’re sitting in the manager’s office and he tells you he has to let you go, giving you two weeks to find another job. Just like that. How do you think you would feel? For many of us, the possibility of losing our job can seem very disheartening, especially if we have financial commitments. When it does occur, it certainly does hurt and can be a stressful time in anyone’s life. Being out of a job and having to deal with the consequences of being unemployed is hard to manage.

How unemployment affects us

Unfortunately it’s common for some people who are unemployed to resort to stealing, but for those who don’t steal, there are other damaging effects. Majority of the time people will people will feel depressed and lack in confidence and self-esteem. During the Great Depression, almost 25 percent of the American work force was out of work. Being longer term unemployed can turn enthusiastic, successful and optimistic people into being emotionally shattered and feeling as though they are failures.

How you can cope

First thing that you should do if you become unemployed is seek any available financial assistance from your previous employer or Centrelink. Some employers may provide severance pay to employees they let off, but you can’t always guarantee they will. Also make sure that you seek any back pay or entitlements that are yours. The simple truth is that if you don’t seek you won’t find! And finally go to your nearest Centrelink office and report to them your current employment situation and see what benefits are available to you to help you cope financially while you are looking for another job.

Your next step should be to sit down with your family or partner and critically assess your family finances and devise a budget. If you have trouble budgeting, there may be free financial counselling assistance available to you. Speak to your nearest Centrelink office for more information. In the event a financial crisis occurs in the household, budgeting should really be done well before in anticipation. By being prepared, you will be well equipped to handle your finances in the event you do become unemployed.

When budgeting, work out how much you will be receiving from Centrelink benefits or any entitlements from unemployment insurance. Also look at your savings and what you have available. Also are there any assets that you can sell to help you cope? For example, is there a second car that you can sell which you don’t really need?

Next work out all your essential expenses, how much do they come to each week or month? Work out how you can cover monthly expenses by cutting it down and living to the minimum expense. You might actually be surprised how much you can save each week by removing any unnecessary expenses!

Lastly don’t feel bad if you need to seek further assistance from family and close friends. If you keep your family in loop with your situation, they should be more than willing to help you out given that your relationship is sound with them. Sometimes it’s best to not have the attitude that you don’t need help or would come across as weak or a failure if you sought help from your family and friends.

Don’t lose sight of the dangers of unemployment

When the effects of unemployment hit the household, the results can be devastating. Financial problems can rip apart families and turn a once happy family life into one which has family members who are irritable and bitter. Tensions can start to grow in the household, and if you are married, can even cause marital problems.

Over the past years, households which have coped the best in a time of crisis with a member being unemployed are the ones who stick together with every member of the family supporting one another and each family member showing deep love towards the unemployed member. By supporting an unemployed member of your household or seeking support from other family members if you become unemployed, will give you the strength and confidence to find another job immediately.

Why is everyone getting promoted except me by Matthew Coppola


It is only normal to want to see yourself progressing through an organisation. Understandably, then, you may feel somewhat discouraged or even left out if you have not been promoted – especially if many of your colleagues have moved forward in the company.

For some, being stuck in the same role can begin to seem like a thick wall, a barrier that divides them from job fulfilment and success. With each passing year, it may feel as if another lot of bricks are laid up on top of that wall. An employee can start to feel that they are no good or do not contribute anything to the organisation.

Do you find yourself thinking along similar lines?

Well let’s look at the popular belief that a promotion opens the door to greater happiness. It is true that a job promotion can and usually does contribute to greater success. However simply being in a higher position does not make one happy. With higher positions come greater responsibilities.

Even if you see the reasonableness of this point, you may still feel discouraged at times. But before you assume the worst, take a minute to ask yourself, “Am I ready for a promotion or higher position?” Be realistic about it. For example if you are a recent graduate or just started a job, the answer most likely will be no!

It is true that some new employees may be exceptionally good or have been in the same role for quite some time. But that does not necessarily mean they should be promoted. Have you honestly considered whether you are ready to take on greater responsibilities in the workplace?

A good self-examination may explain some realities. For example:

–         How mature and responsible are you?

–         Do you get along your with workmates or are you in constant conflict with them?

–         In ways do your peers who have been promoted compare to you? How can you learn from them?

–         Are you motivated to reach out for a promotion?

–         Have you expressed your thoughts on this matter with your supervisor?

Expressing your interests and thoughts about being promoted to your supervisor is the best way to find out if you are ready or not. Be sure to ask your employer how you can reach out for a promotion. This will not only show interest on your part, but keep you on the radar, so to speak, should any opportunities arise.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specializing in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

How do I listen to people better by Matthew Coppola


Today in all walks of life, there is an asymmetry of information between people.  This occurs when there are gaps of information between one another, that is, when some have more information than others. To elaborate, there are “generation gaps” between youthful and elderly people, between the jury and the accused, between employees and employers and between businesses and their customers.

Why does this asymmetry of information come about? The main reason is due to miscommunication. Both parties fail to communicate effectively to each other.  Most of the time, people think of other things while someone is talking to them, instead of actually concentrating their thinking on the conversation and what is being said to them. So even though people may hear what is being said, they didn’t actually listen.

Studies have shown that we spend 40% of our time actually listening when communicating with others. So not only do we talk more then we listen, but we also operate at a listening level of about 25% efficiency. For some people, especially older ones, the levels may be even lower. So building up your skill at effectively listening to your work colleagues, managers and customers is very important for not only daily life, but for your job too.

What does it mean to listen?

To listen means to be attentive to what our colleagues are saying to use by using both our mind and heart, with our ears and our understanding.

Either at work or in your personal life you may have come across people saying to you that you’re not paying attention to them. This comes from the expression “to pay attention” Paying attention essentially means that being attentive to someone will cost you something. This cost is not only your time, but also your self-interest, because you’re putting the interests of others above your own interests. So listening to your customers, colleagues and management requires you to be unselfish with regards to your time, show patience and also self-control because you holding back thoughts about anything else and concentrating your sole attention on the other person.

Is there anything wrong with being dishonest at work?


“Honesty is as rare as a man without self-pity” So wrote American Poet, Stephen Vincent Benet almost 100 years ago. You may agree that little improvement has been made since then in regards to the public’s respect for honesty and its value. Dishonesty is not only prevalent with the general public, but also in workplaces too.

To many employees, the belief is that honesty pays, but not enough. To survive in a tight job market, many feel that they need to lie or bend the truth to get anywhere in life. But is that the case? Does being deceitful, dishonest and untruthful at work really the answer to gaining success? In this article, we are not just referring to small amounts of dishonesty or bending the truth, we are talking about all types and degrees of dishonesty no matter how big or small they are.

There is no such thing as a white lie. A lie is a lie.

Any type of dishonesty is created by greed for some sort of dishonest gain. Greed leads to lying. But you may justify lying by reasoning to yourself that “it’s just work”. Many employees who lie to a customer or supervisor, end up placing the responsibility back on to them saying that it’s the customers end decision and “let the buyer beware” or that the boss doesn’t need to know the truth.

But, can a thief justify his robbery by saying “let the victims beware”? Of course not! Same with employment, if an employee is dishonest and gets ahead at work, they are just as bad as that thief. Both the thief and the worker have been dishonest.

The thief is dishonest by taking someone’s possessions without their permission and not asking them. The employee is dishonest because they held back information from the customer, knowing all too well that if they knew the truth, they would not have bought the product in the first place.

Unfortunately, many feel that being honest is a choice, and will choose to be honest or dishonest depending on what suits them at the time. Your co-workers may argue that they would not be successful in their job unless they were dishonest to some degree.  You may even be asked to lie to a customer to prevent them from being able to speak to a colleague or your boss. Some in the workplace who pursue dishonest activities will even seek to cover up their dishonesty and falsehood by lavishing everyone in the workplace with praise and gifts.

Short term benefits versus long term costs

Before you try and justify to yourself that you can be dishonest when it suits you, ask yourself the question: What is it that I want – a quick benefit or that which results in benefits that are lasting? The benefits you will get from being dishonest at work are likely to be short term. Take for example a builder who builds a house using cheap building materials and quotes a high price based on quality workmanship and materials. True, this builder may make an easy profit, but in the process he may lose a client and all their friends when the person finds out they were cheated. So really, the consequences of being dishonest at work will far outweigh the benefits it brings.

Respect and esteem in the workplace is not given but rather it is earned through honesty, hard work and dedication to the job. So if you build up a reputation for being honest and upfront in your work activities, you are likely to earn the trust and respect of your colleagues and supervisor. Take for example two car salesmen. If both were offering the same make of car and at the same price, but one salesman was known to be honest and the other known to be dishonest, who would you buy from? Well, you would be silly not to buy from the honest person.

You’ll also find that your colleagues will be more honest and upfront with you then they otherwise would. “To be honest, as this world goes, is to be one man picked out of ten thousand.” So wrote William Shakespeare. People appreciate honesty because it is hard to find.

But what if you find out that an employer is doing things at work which are dishonest, what should you do? Really in that instance, it is up to you whether you decide to remain in the job or leave. But in reality, escaping from dishonesty in the workplace will prove futile. Dishonest acts at work will follow you wherever you go. If your employer does not require you to do dishonest things at work, then it would be in your interest to stay in your current job and prove to your employer the value of an honest worker.

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I am an experienced and qualified Employment Consultant. I provide assistance with tailored professional resumes, customised cover letters, key selection criteria responses and keyword optimised LinkedIn profiles.

All of my work is not only professionally written and edited but also has a unique design,  making sure that your job application will stand out from the rest. I work with clients all across Australia including Perth, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart and Adelaide. Having a professionally written resume will ensure your CV stays ahead of the rest. Contact me today to find out how I can help you land your dream job.

Please feel free to email me at info@matthewcoppola.com or call me on 0415 559 233.

How do I keep a job by Matthew Coppola


Tough economic times and volatility in the jobs market over the years has prompted many to feel insecure about their job and keeping it. Added to that, it is even more difficult for youths and lower skilled individuals to get and keep a job they are happy with. There is a saying that goes”there is a job for everyone” but not necessarily the right job.

Toughening economic times mean higher unemployment, which inevitably affects everybody, from low skilled workers to high payed executives. This is economics at play and is out of your control. But job loss can be attributed to reasons other than declining economic activity which are in your control. They are firstly a bad attitude towards work and secondly less value to the employer. But these can be changed which is what we will look at now.

Have an enthusiastic attitude

Always remember that your employer during tough business times is going to keep the employees who are continually willing to work, show an enthusiastic attitude and attend to their employer’s reasonable requests and expectations. That is, the workers who are hard working and obedient to the employer will keep their job in the event that staff reduction is required.

If you also want to promote yourself as a hard worker, not only should you follow their instructions and requirements, but also try your hardest to do more than what you have been asked to do without having to be asked. For instance it would be wise for you to go into work half an hour early and leave half an hour late. Doing more than what is required of you at work shows enthusiasm and a willingness to do better, even if you’re not the smartest or fastest worker on site.

Take a moment now to reflect on your attitude at work. Your attitude is how you feel about your work, your boss and your colleagues. Your attitude is reflected by your actions and comments that you make at work. Having an attitude that reflects a positive and co-operative state of mind will boost your chances of keeping your job. But having a negative attitude will do the opposite. It will continually rot away your chances of keeping your job in the long run.

If you feel that your attitude towards work is negative, I would suggest you readjust your thinking or start looking for another job. If you find yourself going to work tired, try getting an early night’s rest or having a fresh breakfast that is healthy, like fruit and muesli.

“Attitudes are contagious” goes the saying, so remember people will imitate your behaviour upon first seeing you. So if you were to go into work with a sour attitude, your co-workers will imitate your behaviour and will likely respond back in that manner to you. But the same also goes when you first see a colleague at the start of work who has come to work with a miserable attitude. You’re likely to be influenced by their behaviour and even imitate them subconsciously. So you would do well to try and control your state of mind and associate more with your colleagues who have a positive and uplifting state of mind. This is especially true to new employees starting out. They can easily learn the bad habits of the other employees.

Be personable and approachable

Starting a new job is daunting for anybody. The first day on the job can be the biggest hurdle to overcome. Everybody knows each other and they discuss things that you have absolutely no idea what they are talking about. You may even start to ask yourself: ‘Will they get along with me? Am I capable of doing the job?’ These are examples of negative thinking and can almost become self-fulfilling. If you start feeling that way, quickly adjust your attitude and ponder over positive things, like the fact that you are capable of doing the job because you have the skills they need, and that they will like you because your friendly and approachable.

When you are being taught a computer program they use or you are job shadowing a colleague, avoid trying to make out that you know what you are learning, even if you do, and just listen. This will show humbleness on your part, and your colleagues and supervisors will even start to like you already. If you do however feel you don’t understand certain requirements of the job or would like to know how you are progressing since starting the job, find a suitable and convenient and approach your supervisor. Don’t be afraid of seeking constructive criticism, it will only help improve your performance at work but also show your employer that you are interested in doing well in your job.

Another good way to show your employer you are approachable is by listening intently to them without interruption and displaying an open body language. This shows that if they ever need to speak to you about an issue or problem with your work performance or anything, they can easily speak to you about it.

I would also recommend telling your employer and colleagues that you are under their wings and welcome any suggestions for improvement. This shows humility on your part and also makes your work colleagues feel less threatened from and more comfortable to work with you.

You can make an impression on your employer!

There are three ways you can make a good impression on your employer. They are by avoiding gossiping, being on time and being honest. We will now look at each.

 

Avoid gossiping

Gossip is private talk amongst co-workers about others in the workplace. What makes “gossip” different from any other discussion is that it usually is founded upon false information and rumours. Usually once people find out what others have been gossiping about them, it usually results in heartache and sadness, especially if the gossiping is cruel.

Gossip is like a grapevine. Rumours start to grow on the grapevine, with the truth being bent and twisted. When somebody hears a rumour, because it is full of so many lies it can be like a sour grape, which is not very pleasant to eat and worth throwing away. So if you find yourself in the middle of hearing rumours about a colleague, be quick to avoid accepting it as truth and throw it away from your mind like that sour grape!

But you might find yourself at work thinking about something which is really bothering you. Instead of televising it to everybody at work, go and talk about it with your senior. But make sure you have reason to complain about something, and that it isn’t your negative attitude that is the problem. But go about talking to your senior in the right manner. For instance, making an appointment when your senior is not busy would be good to do. This way it will be in the privacy of an office and away from other people to hear and have something to gossip about.

 

Be on time

Being late from work and missing too many days from work is the biggest indicator to employers that you are not 100% committed to your job. You may actually be really committed to your job, but if you get to work late too many times, your employer will have a different view.

Be honest

Employers highly value and appreciate honest employees. For example, some employers put more preference on a person who is honest than another person who has more skills in the job. Showing your employer that you are honest is simple. Tell the truth and don’t steal. If you make a mistake, own up to it as quickly as possible and do not hide information from the employer.

So remember, if you have a job, be appreciative. Work solidly to keep it!

How can I improve my self-esteem and confidence by Matthew Coppola


Being confident is about trusting yourself, and by trusting yourself means that you believe in yourself and your abilities. So if you’re saying to yourself “I’m not a confident person” I would like to know, are you confident about that? We all have confidence in us, but when it comes to speaking up at a meeting, asking the boss for a request, saying no and speaking up to a customer, and taking on a different job role, some may feel that they don’t have the confidence to do so. To build your confidence at work, you need to build your self-esteem.  But you may ask, how can I build up my already low self-esteem?

First thing you need to do is to take a good look at your assets and liabilities. You may feel that you have so many flaws or liabilities that in actual fact are small and petty. Your self-esteem will grow if you concentrate on making small improvements all the time to your more serious flaws, which may be laziness or a quick temper.

Unfortunately most of the time we are quick to forget about our valuable assets as a person and as an employee, for instance you might think that being compassionate and empathetic is not that important. But a customer who is upset about a faulty product and looking for some acknowledgment will admire you for having such attributes! You might actually find that your qualities and skills outweigh your flaws.

Let’s look at a few suggestions to help you improve your self-esteem.

Set SMART goals for yourself

Smart goals are those which are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timed. Your goals should be specific ie. To increase performance by 10% over the next month, not to get better at my job. They should also be attainable and well within your reach. Solving customer issues immediately may not be attainable that easy, but asking more questions to find out how you can resolve customer issues is more in your reach. They should also be realistic and timed. You might not be able to accomplish all your goals in a couple of days, but you will be successful at attaining them over a few months.

Do your best work

If you don’t try hard at work, cut corners or deliberately work slow, you’re less likely to feel any better about yourself. If you put earnest effort at work and try your hardest, although not immediately, you will see the benefits of your hard work. You will then feel better about yourself, and your self-esteem will grow.

Do things for others

There may be instances at your workplace where you have the opportunity to do something good for one of your colleagues. It might be sharing some of their workload or helping them out with a work-related issue, whatever it is, you will get a lot more satisfaction by going out of your way to help others then being concerned about your own well being. You will even find that your colleagues will see that you are doing more for others and they are likely to start doing things for you in return.

Find a mentor

A mentor at your work is somebody who you feel close to on a professional level and that you can confide in. Usually after being in a job for a few months we naturally start building relationships with co-workers. Some colleagues may be closer to you than others. The good thing about a mentor is that they will understand exactly where you are coming if you are trying to sort out a work-related issue.

Avoid unrealistically comparing yourself with others!

A big reason why we can start to feel worthless about ourselves is because compare ourselves in an unrealistic manner to others. They may be a colleague who tends to excel in everything they do and always get praised for their high performance, without mentioning our name! But despite pressures to perform at work, should we really compare ourselves to others? The answer is no. Every one of us has different skills and abilities, attributes and traits, some better, some worse. But learning to accept failures and disappointment is part of life. Not all of us are going to be the best at everything.

Trying to compete with others at work will end up making us feel even more worthless and less confident. Instead by being cooperative, considerate, patient and peaceful makes us feel more better about ourselves rather being egotistical and trying to constantly compete with others and envying their performance and success.

But if we find ourselves really struggling to do well in a certain area, or have a genuine desire to perform better without the competitive motive, then would be a good time to seek help from a mentor as discussed earlier. Even approaching the individual who is performing well and telling them how you really want to improve in an area that you feel they are doing really well in. This shows humility on your part and will impress your colleague and make them feel better about themselves. They are more then to want to help you improve.

How do I deal with peer-pressure from co-workers by Matthew Coppola


Peer pressure occurs when a peer group exerts influence to persuade an individual to change their attitudes, values, or behaviours so that they meet group norms. Unfortunately peer-pressure doesn’t stop at school. It follows us into the workplace. It may be that a co-worker wants you to go out for drinks after work but you don’t really want to, it may be continuous junk mails circulating around the office that try and capture your attention or could be from a co-worker asking you to cover their shift for them. These are just a few examples of peer-pressure occurring in the workplace.

It is only natural to want to be popular and accepted by your peers at work. Influence from your peers should not be viewed necessarily a problem. Take the illustration of a butcher sharpening a knife. The butcher turns a blunt knife into a sharp knife ready to cut. If your work peers have mature, professional and respectful attitudes in the workplace, they can actually help sharpen your knowledge, skills and abilities in the workplace.

However not all workplaces offer positive and up building influences from work peers. Many of your colleagues in your working life, both blue collar and white collar, will lack in professionalism, honesty and respect. They may have views and opinions that are unreliable and even false. So if you do become under the control of your peers, whether it be to cover someone’s shift or gossip about another co-worker, it may be little more than the blind leading the blind. You would just be as much of a fool as they are.

Have you started forming a negative attitude toward a co-worker or management? Have you noticed any changes in your attitude, behaviour or actions at work in order to fit in? It is true to say that no one can make you do anything you don’t want to do, just like the saying that you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink. Ultimately it is your decision.

You may think it’s easy to not be intimidated by what your colleagues will think of you, but when you are faced with peer pressure it’s another story. For example, what would you do in the following circumstances?

One of your co-workers asks for your opinion on another co-worker who keeps coming to work half-an-hour late. You know that they are gossiping and don’t know the full story, but they’re waiting to hear what you think.

You receive junk mail circulating around the office that has been forwarded by a colleague. Everybody else is replying to the email, and you feel obligated to make a comment.

They aren’t easy situations to deal with are they? Most of the time, peer pressure won’t be direct from your colleagues, but may actually be indirect like from the last example. You don’t have to reply to the email circulating around the office, but because everybody is doing it, you may feel obligated to do the same. So how can you build up the strength to stand up to peer pressure from your colleagues?

Giving in to peer-pressure at work is the same as allowing others to do the thinking for you. The moment you step back to think about the actions that you’re going to make because of peer influences, is the moment that you will have the courage to stand up to them. Using your own thinking ability and knowledge and not relying on your co-workers foolish reasoning’s is the best way to overcome what it is you are feeling pressured to do.

It doesn’t matter where you work, be it in an office or on the factory floor, you may be disliked or scorned at because you are using your thinking abilities. Remember, you are the one with the greatest strength than your co-workers who give in to their foolish passions. Take for example the co-workers who ridicule management and their decisions. Are they heading into a successful direction in their career? Of course not! Their attitude won’t just stop them from progressing in the business, but every other workplace they work at. So is that where you want your career to end up at? I doubt it.

Peer pressure will follow you everywhere, regardless of where you work. You can’t avoid this at work because you need to work alongside your colleagues to fulfil your job responsibilities. So what do you do? First thing is you need to keep your cool. If a colleague or supervisor says anything to you that makes you feel pressured or anxious at work, you need to keep your cool and be upfront with them.

We will look at two scenarios – indirect and direct peer pressure. An example of direct pressure would be if you accidentally arrived 10 minutes late to a meeting and a co-worker says to you “just wake up did you?” this then makes you feel under pressure because you arrived late and you’re not meeting your job commitments. You should be upfront with anyone that puts pressure on you at work, but in a mature and responsible manner. In this example, your reply should be “what are you trying to imply bob?” this will put the co-worker on the spot and have to justify why they are putting pressure on you.

Or in our previous example earlier, if a co-worker were to ask you to cover their shift, your first reply should be “No, I am not going to cover your shift” and if they ask you why you won’t, put them on the spot by replying “why should I have to cover your shift, am I not entitled to making my own decisions about what I do and don’t?” this then allows you to be assertive and let the other person know that you make decisions on your own, and not be guided by someone else.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Client Centric Executive Employment Solutions

Careers Advisor, Employment Specialist & Resume Writing Expert.

With over 7 years’ experience in Recruitment, Employment Services and Corporate Training, Matthew has developed a wealth of knowledge and experience in resume writing, interview skills, job searching strategies, selection criteria writing and career planning. 

His approach to resume writing is to actually sell the individual, shine a light on their best qualities and powerfully market them to prospective employers. 

Matthew holds a Graduate Certificate in Career Education and Development and a Bachelor of Commerce majoring in Economics.

How do I deal with difficult people by Matthew Coppola


It doesn’t matter where you work they exist, people who are difficult to work with. This chapter has been written to be applicable to most situations at work when you are faced with difficult people. It may be people who are arrogant towards you, don’t listen to you because you are younger or hold a higher position, lazy workers and those who you find are always attacking you in a non-confrontational manner, either verbally with connotations or behind your back.

We call this office politics and it won’t go away. We all need to know how to deal with it.

We will now look at a number of suggestions you can use to deal with difficult people and difficult situations. These are:

  1. Be smart about your choice of words
  2. Show patience
  3. Keep an eye on your body language
  4. Treat others as you would like to be treated yourself

 Be smart about your choice of words

Being smart about your choice of words involves using words that show respect, are commonly understood and evoke feeling. They also need to be grammatically correct. This will show respect for what you are trying to say and demonstrate that you have a positive attitude towards the person you are talking to. Your colleagues will then respond in the same manner, but this may take a while to happen.

Examples of words which are positive and up-building include:

–         Happy to speak with you

–         Nice work

–         Thank you John

–         Good morning/afternoon/night Leanne

–         Isn’t it a beautiful day today?

–         I was fascinated by the way you solved the problem

–         What an ingenious idea!

–         Now that’s original!

–         Could you please help me?

–         Ok wonderful, when do you start?

–         I love Friday!

–         Hello Mike

–         That’s fantastic

–         I’m so glad you’re here today!

–         Now that is impressive

Words are a powerful means of communicating to colleagues and must be used wisely. The saying ‘think before you speak’ says it all. The words you use in your conversations must be used in the right context with the right tonality, otherwise your message may be understood incorrectly and have the wrong effect then that intended.

It can be difficult to make the effort to use appropriate words, as some words can have two meanings if used in the wrong context. For example you might say “did you do the secretary?” referring to organising training for the company’s staff, but it can also have a double meaning with sexual connotations.

Using “I” or “my” too much in your conversation can cause co-workers to think that you always talk about yourself. Unless it permits, try and use “you” “us” more. Try and avoid talking about yourself unless they ask a question that permits you to do so. Also when starting a conversation with someone, always begin it by asking about them before you talk about yourself.

In the Australian workplace, it is respectful to use different expressions when you address others in higher positions such as a manager or supervisor. Of course everybody is different, and some people in higher positions may prefer to be spoken in a more relaxed manner, however the rule is to speak in an honourable and respectful manner to every employee in any position in the workplace.

Show patience

When confronted with a difficult co-worker, have you ever asked yourself “how many times should I have to forgive this person? Over ten times?” Sure, forgiving someone ten times may seem ridiculous, but what if you were that person being forgiven, wouldn’t you want to be forgiven more than ten times? Of course you would! So the same principle applies to putting up with the difficulties from a co-worker. It takes patience and endurance on your part.

Keep an eye on your body language

Body language is the non-verbal messages that we put across through our physical positioning and movements and accounts for 55% of total communication. There is positive and negative body language. Negative body language can show that we are not interested in speaking to someone. This includes crossed arms, body pointed away from someone while they are talking to you, and continually looking away while someone is talking to you. You need to make sure that your body language is correct and shows that you are interested in talking to a colleague and what they have to say.

Showing positive body language includes having your body pointed to the other person or mirroring their body language is a great way to establish rapport. So if your colleague is leaning against a table, imitate their body language by leaning up against the table too. Also maintain eye contact with the person you are talking to, and show that you are listening to them by nodding and looking at both their eyes and lips.

Treat others as you would like to be treated yourself

You could use a number of suggestions from this chapter in dealing with a difficult colleague, but sometimes you just need to put yourself in the other person’s shoes. Think if you were them, how would you like to be treated? For example, let’s say you were jealous of another work colleague because they were better looking and drew more attention. Would you want them to acknowledge your attractiveness and include you when getting attention from co-workers? Of course you would. Doing so would make you feel better about yourself and have no need to be jealous.

But you might step back from this, and think “why should I have to go out of my way to make someone like me if they are the one who is being difficult to me?” Well you have just answered your question already. You should try and make amends with someone purely for the fact that they don’t like you. If you don’t and have a proud attitude, you’re going to go to work every day and have to put up with someone giving you a hard time. Sometimes you just need to be the stronger person.

How do I find a job by Matthew Coppola


A ‘job’ means different things to different people. For some, it can mean a hobby that pays an income, or something to keep them busy during the week. But for many, it’s what is needed to feed, clothe and house their family. Which means for many being out of work can cause financial hardship.

The Australian job market is like a rollercoaster, going up and down depending on the economic conditions of the time.

Unemployment is also more erratic and higher for young people under 25 with little experience or qualifications. Just ask anyone who has been through the 1990-91 recession, the dot com crash of 2001-02 or the financial crisis of 2007-10 and they’ll tell you that it isn’t easy getting a job during hard economic times, particularly if you have little skills or experience.

Being out of a job, particularly for a long time can become somewhat disheartening. You may have a family to care for financially, rent to pay or a mortgage to pay off. The longer you are unemployed the more you may start to feel less enthusiastic about applying for jobs. Luckily for us in Australia we have a relatively good social security system that looks after us financially in the event that we become short – long term unemployed.

Unemployment is not good for anyone – the government, businesses and society. It affects everybody. Higher unemployment means less taxation for the government and a bigger burden on the social security system. Businesses earn less revenue which result in smaller profits as they start to reduce their prices to attract customers. It also affects the individual as their self-esteem falls and society at large as families are affected.

So if you or someone else is unemployed, what are some wise choices to make? We will now look at a few suggestions to help you obtain a job and bring back your sense of self-worth.

Education and training is essential

Educational institutions are good training grounds to get you job ready. They teach you how to read, write, be self-disciplined and speak well. Every job requires good communication skills and you can learn this through schooling and training. Whether it be a taxi driver who needs to read a map and be able to listen for directions, a bricklayer to measure out the right amount of cement mixture or a salesman required to do computations, communication skills are vital.

In Australia depending on your circumstances you may be eligible for financial assistance if you choose to pursue further studies to improve your job prospects. Speak to your local job provider for more information.

Be determined. Don’t give up!

Being determined to find a job, by definition, means to devote all your strength and focused attention to finding a job.  While you are unemployed, your job should be to find a job. While you are looking for work, pretend that you start at 8:30am and finish at 4pm. Spend that time working on your resume, calling prospective employers and sending out your resume along with a customised covering letter for each job.

But don’t give up! If you use all your power, energy and strength to look for a job, you will be more successful finding a job in a tight job market and your efforts will pay off. We will now look at a number of ways you can exert your power and energy to look for a job.

Update your resume

Are you still using the same resume you had since finishing high school? If so, you need to revise your resume so that it accurately reflects your current job skills and experience.

Should you include every job experience you have in your resume? Well if you were applying for a job as a fireman, would it be wise to include experience as an office clerk? Of course not! Your resume should reflect the skills and experience you have that are important to the employer. Try and have a different resume for different jobs. For example you could have both a fireman resume and an office clerk resume.

Is your resume easy to read? Grammatically correct without any spelling mistakes? A resume that reads well and is grammatically correct shows professionalism, it also shows that you take pride in your resume.

Customise your covering letter

Each covering letter should be written from scratch in your own words unless you write up a standard format and personalise it for each job. If the employer sees that you’ve just copy and pasted your covering letter and shown no effort in trying to get the job, it won’t look good, and your chances of getting a job will diminish.

Cold-call prospective employers

Employers love job seekers who show enthusiasm. You can start cold calling prospective employers in two ways. One way is by making a list of jobs in an industry that you want to work in, and searching for available jobs via job search websites and the newspaper for that industry. Secondly, contact companies that involve the work you want to do and cold-call them. Remember, the majority of jobs are not advertised. Before you call, write a calling script first. This will prepare you. Use the following calling script as a template:

 Hi (use their name) my name is John,

WAIT FOR RESPONSE

The reason for my call is that I am currently looking for a job as a (type of work).

I thought I would call your business/company because I am particularly interested in the kind of work that you do.  

(use their name) I was wondering if you could help me?

WAIT FOR RESPONSE

 Use this template as a guide and alter it to suit what works for you. Try to sound confident on the phone and be positive about yourself. Before you make a cold-call, assume that the business would be interested in hiring you. Having a positive attitude will come across in your tonality and the way you speak. If you hesitate at all on the phone the employer may feel that you are unsure of yourself.

Why It Pays To Be Honest In Sales By Matthew Coppola


To many business people, the belief is that honesty pays, but not enough. To survive in the cut throat world of business and sales, many feel that they need to lie or bend the truth to get anywhere in business.But is that the case? Does being deceitful, dishonest and untruthful in sales and business really the answer to gaining success? In this article I am not just referring to small amounts of dishonesty or bending the truth, I am talking about all types and degrees of dishonesty no matter how big or small they are.There is no such thing as a white lie. A lie is a lie.
Any type of dishonesty is created by greed for dishonest gain. Greed leads many business owners and sales people to lie. But you may justify by reasoning that “its business” and “business is business”. Many sales people even put the responsibility back on to the customer, saying that its the customers end decision and “let the buyer beware”.

But, can a theif justify his robbery by saying “let the victims beware”? Of course not! Same with in sales. If a salesperson is dishonest and makes a sale, they are just as bad as that theif. Both the thief and the salesperson have been dishonest.

The theif is dishonest by taking someones possessions without their permission and not telling them. The salesperson is dishonest because they sold the customer a product and not told them the truth about the product. The salesperson sold the product knowing all too well that if the customer knew the truth, they would not have bought the product in the first place.

Yes, honesty in business and sales may require greater time and hard work, but the satisfaction and joy from honesty and truthfullness far outweigh that from dishonesty!

But is this view realistic? Can salespeople who need to meet weekly targets follow it? Well yes they can! To illustrate, lets use an example of an employment placement coach whose job it is to place all types of people into employment, even those who are not the most preferred people to employ.

When you are advocating a candidate for a job, you may find it pays to be honest and upfront with the employer in the beginning. If you hide the negative points about a job seeker and just focus on whats good about them, the employer will be trying to evaluate them and the reasons as to why they are unemployed.

Not only that, but if they actually get the job and their negative side is seen by the employer, it will not only affect the security of their employment but also affect the employers view of you and any other candidate you recommend to the employer in the future.

An Explanation Of Generation Y By Matthew Coppola


OMG. IM ROFLMAO ATM. BTW I G2G but ill BRB.If your not up with the lingo I just said Oh my goodness. Im Rollling over Laughing my ass off. I got to go but ill be right back. Today im going to be talking about the generation that talks like that.Known for their optimistic attitudes, aspirations for higher education, ability to work collaboratively, their open-mindedness, and drive, Generation Y are here. And they are making a statement.They are tech-savvy, travel-mad, self-absorbed, peer-pressured, celebrity-obsessed, Facebook-compulsive, iPod-wearing, brand-conscious 20-somethings who live with their parents and show no loyalty to their employer THEY’RE supposed to be hip, smart-talking, and sometimes seem to suffer from an overdose of self esteem. With a BlackBerry in one hand, half-caf latte in the other and an iPod-plugged earphones surgically attached to ears, they are ambitious, demanding and apparently born to rule. Right now!They are Generation Y and there are more than four and a half million of them in Australia.

You could also call them the internet generation, echo boomers, igeneration, the mypod generation or the millinials. They have become almost a household name!

The exact years are a subject of debate however I can provide some insight into the reason why Generation Y do what they do.

Now if another Generation provided this information it may be how they are viewed from the outside. Today I would like to give you some of the inside scoop for Gen Y.

So what makes them tick? How do we recruit them? More importantly, how do we retain them?

Firstly well look at what factors influence this generation, so we understand where they are coming from.

COMPARING GENERATIONS

Baby Boomers were influenced by the dawn of the TV, Rock and Roll, the Cold War, Vietnam War, the danger of nuclear war. Xers saw the Personal Computer, AIDS, single parent families, the growth in multiculturalism, and the downsizing of companies.

Gen Y have lived through the age of the internet, cable television, globalisation, September 11 and environmentalism

PEER PRESSURE

Unlike previous generations before them, peer pressure has become a major influence on Gen Y.
They wont listen to the media and are less likely to listen to their parents. But they will listen to their friends.

Unlike the pen-pal relationship that teens of the 1970s enjoyed, Gen Y no longer need to wait for letters in transit.

Gen Y are also communicating with one another using different communication mediums than previous generations. Instant messaging technologies and mobile phones have become very popular with Gen Y.

Online communication affords instant gratification for the users involved. Messages appear on the screen mere seconds after they are posted, allowing conversation-style communication between friends.

TECHNOLOGY

Ask any Gen Y What/who has a lot of influence on your thinking and behaviour? and most of them will likely say TV and movies.

Research shows that Aussie teenagers are now spending more time watching TV today then compared to four years ago, up from 2 hours 16 minutes per day to 2 hours and 20 minutes, a growth of 3.6%.

In addition to the growing Internet and video games use, they are now approaching 4 hours screen time per day.

Ease of access to a computer with internet connection and portable devices such as IPhones which can connect to the internet mean that Gen Y spend a great deal of time online and on social networking mediums such as facebook.

SOCIAL, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL CONDITIONS

Gen Y have also experienced different economic, social and political conditions than previous generations. Before the financial crisis occurred, most Aussie gen Ys had no idea what impact a recession has on society.
Which partly explains why most of Gen Y are still living at home.

Although they are the most materially endowed, and entertained generation of teenagers ever, they have been seriously affected by the economic climate.

Economic crises, including the dot-com bubble in 2000, and the United States housing bubble that resulted in the financial crisis have made paying any rent, hard for this generation riddled with high unemployment levels.

Theyve also seen the costs of their parents success in terms of broken marriages, absentee parenting, and an epidemic of stress related illnesses.

How To Make The Most Out Of Employing Generation Y By Matthew Coppola


KEY BENEFITS IN EMPLOYING GEN Y”They are tech-smart “” Being the first generation to have grown up with computers, Gen Y are early adopters of new technology.They are fast learners when it comes to new tech gadgets, and can even teach you how to use things like content management systems and social media.

“Inexpensive and cost-effective – Generation Y are less motivated by money than previous generations. work/life balance and flexibility is the most motivating factor for Gen Y, than monetary payment.

“Team players – Generation X have been termed “The Me Generation,” Generation Y are “The We Generation” for their strong belief in community and peer-to-peer relationships.

“High tolerance and acceptance of others – Gen Y have been labelled “The Trophy Generation” as they tend to have a mentality that everyone can do well and no one should be left out.

“Self-expressive “” Twitter, Myspace and Facebook have taught Gen Y to express themselves. In the workplace this means that employees are more open and have the ability to effectively brainstorm ideas and express their opinions in a uniformed manner.

“Aware of the difficulties in the job market for new graduates “” Their experience of recession both in 2000 and the recent financial crisis has made Gen Y more aware of competition in the job market. They are aware that there would be hundreds of applicants who would be more than happy to take their position, so if you employ a graduate, most likely if the job conditions are good, they”ll likely want to stay and will work harder to keep their job.

KEY TIPS FOR EMPLOYERS

“Think outside the box and take advantage of the diverse range of talent Gen Y have.

“Manage the individual not the group. Ask them how they are and how their job can work better for them and their life

“Provide a positive workplace culture that encourages creative behaviour and career development.

But make sure that your words meet your actions. If you promise career progression and do not deliver, they are less likely to believe you and stay very long.
“Give immediate feedback: consistently provide feedback and short performance-review cycles supported by coaching or mentoring

“Communicate by asking them questions in the interview process to find out what they are looking for out of the job

“Make sure Gen Y employees know what they are up for in the interview and how they can advance in the business

“Show how they are making a positive contribution to the overall operations of the business

“Get them involved in management meetings

“Allow them to be creative in their job

“Provide training and opportunities for continual development

“Offer opportunities to do work experience in a higher level role

“Set a mentor or coach for a Gen Y employee

“Allow them to apply what they are learning at TAFE/University relevant to the workplace

How To Help Others And Ourselves Accept Change In The Workplace By Matthew Coppola


If we want to help ourselves and others manage change, what can we do?Empathy: The First Key to Successful ChangeA practical definition of empathy is, putting yourself in the shoes of the other person.

In managing change, the first key is to know to what extent the change will be resented or rejected, accepted or welcomed. If everyone is enthusiastic about it, it is probably wise to proceed immediately. But if it will be resented and resisted, it is probably wise to reconsider or go slowly.

In order to be accurate in analyzing the degree of resistance or acceptance, it is necessary to consider each person individually. The better a manager knows the individuals who will be affected by the change the more accurate will be his or her analysis of their reactions.

Participation: The Second Key to Successful Change

Empathy, the first key, requires a manager to determine feelings and reactions toward a change. The second key, participation, requires a manager to get involvement from those concerned with and affected by the change.

Participation is a very important factor in the successful management of change. It begins with a philosophy among all levels of management, beginning at the top. They must believe that participation can benefit both the organization and the employees.

It then requires implementation. In most cases a formal approach is best. This would include a specific program such as quality circles with its structure and training. In some cases an informal approach can be successful.

Communication: The Third Key to Successful Change

Communication, the third key, requires the manager to maintain continuous, complete, and clear communication with all persons affected by the change.

The following aspects of communication are frequently misunderstood or often ignored by managers.

Definition
Communication means to create understanding and not merely to send information. If people don’t understand, the manager has not communicated.

Who
The criteria for deciding to whom to communicate should include those who want to know as well as those who need to know.

When
Care should be taken regarding the timing of the communication. First of all, managers should be told before non managers and union officers get the information. Secondly, those who will be affected should be told as far in advance as practical.

How
Managers should give thought to the method of communicating before doing it. It is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of oral and written communication. When making a decision, it is also important to use empathy. In most cases, oral as well as written may be necessary to get understanding as well as to gain acceptance. In very few cases will written communication alone do the job.

————

Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Does money make us more happier?


An assumption in Economics is that consumers prefer more, and that one’s utility can be increased through the consumption of more goods and services. In other words, the more money we have as individuals, the more satisfied we are with our life. But does greater income and consumption really translate into greater happiness? Three main research studies are examined, with offer similiar yet different answers.

In one study, an ordinal scale for happiness was derived from answering the question: “taken all together, how would you say things are these days – would you say that you are very happy (score of 3), pretty happy (2), or not too happy (3)?” (Davis, Smith & Marsden, 2001) For 1994-1996, the mean happiness score was 1.92 for those in the lowest 10% of the income distribution, and 2.36 for those in the highest 10% income distribution. This study showed that there is a positive relationship between utility and income.

In the World Values Survey, cross-country comparisons were made to view this relationship on a global scale. In this case, income was measured by each 51 country’s per-capita gross national product (GNP) as measured in US Dollars. The question asked to all respondents: “all things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?” the scale was 1 representing most dissatisfied and 10 most satisfied (ICPSR 2000). Graphical analysis showed that countries with higher GNP per capita on average, experience higher satisfaction. However this satisfaction increases at a lower rate, reflecting diminishing utility as material well being increases (Davis, Smith & Marsden, 2001).

The researchers concluded that there are other factors which affect satisfaction levels, such as health, the political environment, freedom etc. For example individuals with high income levels, but poor health were less happy, then those with better health. Countries with high incomes, yet strict government control had less happier individuals then those countries with less control (People in North Korea can testify to this!) Although researchers still agree that greater happiness results from greater utility, on average that is.

However, Princeton University Researchers have found that the link between income and happiness is “greatly exaggerated and mostly an illusion” (Quinones 2006). Their new fndings build on efforts to develp alternative methods of gauging the well being of individuals and of society, as it became apparent that people surveyed in a new study about their own happiness were overstating the impact of income on their wellbeing.

Although income is a good measure of well being, its role is low and less important then first thought. People with greater incomes do not necessarily spend a greater amount of time doing enjoyable activities (Quinones 2006) In economics it is assumed that the rational consumer will increase their level of consumption for luxury goods and services, due to their higher level of disposable income and will be more satisfied. But in reality, higher income individuals are “barely happier than others in moment-to-moment experience” and tend to be tenser.

New measures adopted are based on individuals ratings of their actual experiences, instead of a judgement of their lives as a whole. The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) measures peoples quality of daily life. This creates an “enjoyment scale” by requiring people to record the previous days activities and describe their feelings about the experiences. The method has proved effective.

For example, when people were asked to describe their general happines and then asked how many dates they had in the past month, their answers showed little correlation. But when the order of the questions was the opposite for another group, the link between their love lives and general happiness became much greater. This is in line with the finding from the World Values Surveys.

So far three studies have been examined. The first study concluded that there is a positive relationship between income and happiness, the second looked at this relationship on a global scale, still indicating a positive relationship, but discovering the presence of diminishing utility with income, and concludes that there are other factors at play. The last study makes a revision of past research then it conducts its own study. The researchers concluded that this positive relationship has been very much exaggerated and criticize the integrity of past surveys. Whilst they acknowledge that there is a positive relationship, there are still many other factors at play and only to a small extent, is income positively related to happiness, thus agreeing with the other two studies.

How to effectively cold visit prospective employers by Matthew Coppola


There are a number of steps to make in effectively cold visiting a prospective client.

1. Get into the right frame of mind

Never go out and sell a product/service to a business if you really are not feeling up to it. Business people can sense any disinterest, unenthusiasm or tiredness from you and they are likely to imitate you and be disinterested themeselves. So make sure before you go out, you clear your mind, have a cup of coffee, prepare your material, and go out. Make sure you are also comfortable too. If it is a cold day, wear warm clothes, if it is a hot day, then you would do well to well cooler clothes.

2. Prepare yourself

Make sure you have all the marketing material on you, and that you are ready for any objections that you may come up against. I would suggest writing up a document thats titled “Frequently asked questions” which you can hand to the client to remove any suspicions or misunderstandings they may have.

3. Briefly learn about the business you will be visiting before you go out.

Employers appreciate people who have a good knowledge about their company because this shows that theyve gone out of their way to understand the possible needs of the company and it shows enthusiasm.

4. Presentation is key

When you go to reception and ask for the manager or business owner and they ask what you are here for, mention that it is a business matter and you need to speak directly with the manager. I would suggest however that you call before hand to arrange an appointment, but sometimes that can be hard if you are trying to sell something, getting through the gatekeeper can be very difficult in many instances. One option is that you call the business before hand and say:

“Oh hi ________ my name is _________ from __________ and I cant find the business card of the manager/business owner anywhere, are you able to help me? I need to contact them”

When you go into the business I suggest not mentioning your last name and ask to see the manager in a direct and assertive manner.

So you have been successful in getting through the gate keeper and the manager walks out from his office. Use the following script template and change to suit yourself accordingly:

Hi _______ I’m Matthew from ________ I apologise for coming unannounced, but would you be interested in knowing how ____________________”

(This part is when you mention the possible value the business can epect to get, and if they are interested, then proceed with you sales pitch. If they arent, move on. There are plenty of people out there who would be interested)

“The reason why I came to your business is that I felt our product/service would be of interest to you because ________________”

(When you are mentioning why you feel it is of interest to them, mention how your product/service can save their company value and money, tailoring your sales pitch specifically to their business.

“What are your thoughts?”

(Now you have the chance to answer any questions/objections)

And that is pretty much it, if you have got to that stage, you can either sell your product then and there or leave information with them, grab their contact details and ask to follow up in a few days once they have reviewed your product/service.

 

How To Implement A Strategic Plan: Learning from the Game of Monopoly by Matthew Coppola


Implementing a well-thought out strategy can result in a desirable outcome.

Monopoly is a great example. Although it is a game of chance there are elements of strategy which contribute to a successful win.

Firstly forget about cheating in business. It doesn”t guarantee winning.
In Monopoly the player who steals money from his opponent or does not remind the other player that they are due rent if they forget, may experience a short term gain, but the long term result could be negative, such as a loss in credibility and trust, and with a short term gain mentality, there is no future focus, so the strategy will be misguided.

Secondly, ethical behaviour and a sense of fair play, is just as important in Monopoly as it is in business.

In game strategy we refer to the situation when a player makes a course of action over a series of games, as “repeated games”.

A firm that takes on unethical conduct to craft a quick killing might benefit in the short term, but will end up paying for it in the long term.

Take for instance organisations that outsource manufacturing to low cost countries.

Yes it will result in cost savings, but may affect reputation of product quality.
However, a business that maintains an open-handed refund and makes a practice of giving customers the benefit of the doubt, might not be as profitable in the short run as a more rigid policy, but is more likely to lead to repeat business, customer loyalty, and long-term gains.

Thirdly maintain a healthy cash position. In Monopoly having a nice wad of cash around helps protect you from times when you land on high rent spot or you want to buy property or build houses.

Same with strategic planning, opportunities arise in the strategic scope which may not have been accounted for when the plan was initially developed. Cash position is a good indicator also of the health of an organisation and their ability to repay short term debts.

Fourthly in Monopoly, by having your hand in different areas you can be guaranteed of income, for example not just having one side of the board but having parts all over. Same in business.

Business diversification is a strategy to increase the variety of services and products within an organization. Diversification can be a growth strategy, taking advantage of market opportunities, or it may be aimed at reducing risk by spreading interests over different areas.

It can be achieved through acquisition or through internal research and development, and it can involve managing two, a few, or many different areas of interest.

There are two types of diversification strategies:

One type is horizontal diversification, which involves expansion into a similar product area, for example, a domestic furniture manufacturer producing office furniture.

In Monopoly it means acquiring all properties under one colour.
Another is vertical diversification, in which a company moves into a different level of the supply chain, for example, a manufacturing company becoming a retailer.

Vertical diversification in Monopoly entails acquiring utilities and other non-residential spots.

So what are the motives for diversification?

They are growth, risk reduction, and profitability.

To become the top player in Monopoly you need to acquire as many properties as you can and increase your cash flow by buying houses and hotels.

Players can reduce risk of losing or succumbing to landing on a high rental spot by acquiring as many properties and utilities as they can. That way, nearing the end of the game once everyone have bought houses and hotels, if you do land on a property or utility and you own it, well you avoid rent.
Profitability is also a key motive for diversification. In Monopoly, some properties offer very little rent value, but other properties offer very high rental return. And having a constant cash flow from owning numerous properties helps keep you profitable.

However, a key advantage of a specialised company over one that is diversified across a number of vertically linked businesses is the specialised company”s ability to develop distinctive capabilities. In Monopoly, by concentrating on one or a couple of property blocks on one side of the board enables you to have enough money to build houses and hotels on those properties quicker and with less risk.

And lastly In Monopoly try and team up with players who have a nice wad of cash for needed protection.

A strategic alliance is a cooperative relationship between firms involving the sharing of resources in pursuit of common goals. Having a strategic alliance can help you win against the big boys with more money. Acquiring another company can be expensive, but alliances are more targeted and cheaper way of accessing other company”s capabilities.

So all these points just in a game”

Therefore for an organisation, the most important factor is not luck, but the ability to recognise opportunities when they appear and to have the clarity of direction and the flexibility necessary to exploit these opportunities.
Seeing the benefits of a well thought out strategy takes time and patience. You won”t see the fruitages of a strategy over night.

We can learn this lesson on patience in the game of chess.
Many opportunities will come up that may divert your strategy on a tangent, and as attractive it may be, it doesn”t hurt to be patient and do your research by considering all the known options available.

In business grabbing an attractive opportunity can result in “first mover advantage” however, by being flexible and open to possibilities can result in a more optimal outcome.

Understanding the Business Environment: Learning from the Game of Golf by Matthew Coppola


The surroundings of the business has a huge impact on the outcome of any strategy.

Now an organisation may operate in a…..positive environment.

But what if it is operating in a…..negative environment?

Well then it may have detrimental effects to the business.

An organisation would be a smart company if they took good note of their surroundings.

Take for example….professional golf.

Professional golfers are not only good at accurately taking a swing and controlling the speed and height of the ball, but they also take into account how the environment affects their game.

Pro golfers even look at the type of grass used on the golf course they are playing at.

For example, certain types of grass will affect the size of a scuff mark or divot and your ability to create one.

Divots are the amount of grass that shoots out after you hit the ball. It is very annoying to have to fix and also if your ball lands in someone else”s divot.

Some grasses, such as bent grass, have a thinner and more delicate blade structure than most other grasses while their root structures are also more vertical.

Together these traits mean that these grasses more easily produce divots.

On the other hand, the Bermuda and fescue grasses that can be seen on a large number of golf courses in Queensland make it tougher to produce divots. These grasses feature wider and tougher blades.

PEST Analysis (political, economic, social and technical) is a technique we use to analyse the business environment.

But it can be very time consuming to do, and you would be forever finding new factors which may have little or no affect on your organisation”s strategy.

So what we need to do is go back to the fundamentals:

In making a profit, the firm needs to create value for customers. This requires an understanding of the customers:
Who are they? What do they like? Why do they buy?

In creating value, the goods and services are acquired from suppliers. So an understanding of the suppliers is required:
Who do they also supply to? What do they supply? How can we develop a better relationship with them?

Next, your organisations ability to generate profit from value creating activities depends on the competition and how intense it is, this then relies on an understanding of your competition:

Who are they? What are they good at? What aren”t they good at? Who are their customers? Why are they in business?

So your organisations business environment is formed by its relationship with three sets of players in the game: Customers, suppliers, and competitors.
This is its industry environment.

So a key part in understanding the game being played is the ability to read your customers and know how to satisfy their needs depending on changes in the business environment.

Professional golfers for example, read the grass by taking into account the characteristics of the putting grass used. This understanding enables them to be able to determine the “influence” on their ball “” that is, what factors will impact the direction and distance they require from a stroke.

There are two factors which influence their ability to read the grass “” slope and grain

Most greens are designed with some slope so they can drain away water and any green may include a number of slopes to influence your putt.
Grain refers to the tendency of a species of grass to grow in a certain direction.

Because greenkeepers rotate mowing patterns, a uniform pattern of grain generally is not established.

Still, it”s valuable to understand the impact of grain.

Grain has a tendency to run in the direction of the natural form of the land – away from hills and toward places where creeks and ponds naturally occur.
Exposure to sunlight at only certain times is another factor. For example, Bermuda grass has a tendency to grow toward the sun.

A professional will know whether they are putting the ball against the grain or not, and will change their style to suit.

So the solution to the problem of environmental change is to understand your markets characteristics, that is, what are your customer”s underlying needs, rather than what are the specific products your customers need.

————

Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

Key Marketing Tips by Matthew Coppola



1. Base all your images and information around your target market.

Your target market is the customer base which purchases your products. Take into account their age profile and income group. Older age groups have different preferences as opposed to younger age groups. Income is also a strong dependant on how important price and value will play in determining a successful sale or not.

2. Identify your competitor’s marketing activities

Improve where they fall short.  In engaging in marketing and advertising activities, too many businesses fail by copying their competitors in the hope of gaining a slice of the market share. Competition means choice and availability for customers. Show your customers that you can offer the same services and products of your competitors but better and offer more value. Where your competitors fall short, make it your greatest strength.

3. Engage in networking activities and generate contacts in the industry

It”s not what you know that gets things done, it’s who you know. Networking not only generates business friendships, but it also creates awareness of you and your business. Improve your body language and build rapport with other individuals in the industry. Find people in different industries and let them know what you do and why you are unique. Create awareness and build contacts in the process.

4. Re-design your brochures and other material you present to clients to be unique and attractive

It isn”t good to judge a book by its cover and the same is said for businesses. But unfortunately businesses are judged by their “outward appearance”. Your brochures, website, business cards and other material you use to present to clients should be outstanding in appearance and attractive.

5. Create a website and promote it through social networking sites and internet advertising

The internet is now a major preferred medium by businesses to search for service providers. By listing your organisation on blogs, social networking sites and through web advertising, you can create a strong awareness. Pictures are also great to illustrate what you do. The saying goes that a picture paints a thousand words.

6. Offer packages to suit high income and low income groups

Try and be all things to all businesses. If need be, roll out the red carpet and go the extra to show that you want their business and will work out a package that is both economical for you and provides great value for your prospective client. Sell the benefits of consuming your product, not just the product itself.

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I am an experienced and qualified Employment Consultant. I provide assistance with tailored professional resumes, customised cover letters, key selection criteria responses and keyword optimised LinkedIn profiles.

All of my work is not only professionally written and edited but also has a unique design,  making sure that your job application will stand out from the rest. I work with clients all across Australia including Perth, Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart and Adelaide. Having a professionally written resume will ensure your CV stays ahead of the rest. Contact me today to find out how I can help you land your dream job.

Please feel free to email me at info@matthewcoppola.com or call me on 0415 559 233.

Do’s and Dont’s of Email Etiquette by Matthew Coppola


1.What is the biggest mistake people make when sending business emails?

The biggest mistake would have to be sending emails with too many subjects.
If you are sending an email, make sure that it is on one subject alone, not many. Because when people receive emails with too many subjects, the email respondents end up forgetting to reply to most of the different matters.
So I suggest when sending emails, make sure they are on one subject, and if you have a number of matters that need dealt with, keep them as separate emails.

2.What is a common mistake people make without realising they are making a mistake?

Bad grammar
– forgetting to spell check is a common mistake people make that they don’t realize.
– When sending emails throughout the day, we may become busy and so will rush through an email, and sending it without double checking our grammar and punctuation.
– Make sure spell check is always turned on. However, spell check misses mistakes like this:
“I this due by Tuesday”
Spell check would say that is correct. When really it isn”t and should be:
“I need this due by Tuesday”

So it is always good to double check our emails before sending.
Ways you can quickly check for typo mistakes:
Read through the email but only concentrate on the words and their structure, not what the email is reading. This way you will be able to find mistakes easier without getting caught up in the email.

3.How should an email be properly constructed?

-Specific subject
Eg.
BAD: Next Tuesday”s appointment
GOOD: Appointment for Tuesday the 20th of August 2010 with John Smith
-Introduction
An email should start off with a good introduction which captures your readers attention and helps them to follow on through the email:
Eg.
Hello John,
Hope you had a good weekend OR
Thank you for your time today to discuss the matter with you.

-Body
This is the base of the email.
Key information for the reader is in this part of the email. Whatever you need to ask or say put it in here.

-Conclusion
Always end an email off in a positive note or to recap your email.
Eg. Please feel free to contact me if you would like more information
Kind regards,
OR
I look forward to seeing you next week and discussing the proposition with you.
Kind regards,

4.How important is good email etiquette?

Very important.
A good email shows professionalism so sending a well written email will impress your client or customer.

5.What are the possible ramifications of bad email etiquette?

-Perception by the email respondent as unprofessionalism and lack of care in the way your conducting business
-The email respondent may disregard the email and forget about it
-The email may be passed on as junk mail if the subject line is too general or small.
-The use of emoticons and acronyms like BTW (by the way) are way too informal. Not everybody knows what they mean. Readers could even get the wrong impression of your email writing skills.

————

Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.

A Comparison and Contrasting of John Mill and Thomas Malthus on the long term dynamics of Capitalism by Matthew Coppola


The following article studies the opposing and unifying theories of two economists, John Stuart Mill and Thomas Robert Malthus, on the long term dynamics of capitalism, which entail aspects of growth, development and accumulation of a capitalist economy. The key topics studied by Malthus and Mill include labour, consumption, population growth, agriculture and property rights. These will be discussed from both a theoretical and empirical perspective in the following article.

A major topic discussed by Mill and Malthus is on unproductive and productive labour in contributing to wealth creation in a capitalist economy. According to Malthus, a worker did not have to just produce wealth to be productive, but rather it is the value of what the worker produces that makes them productive. To Malthus, productive labour:
“should be susceptible to some sort of definitive valuation” [And] must add to the wealth of the country an amount at least equal to the value paid for such labour” (Malthus, 1836 p.46).

Thus according to Malthus, the worker is not productive unless the worker adds to society more than was paid their services, namely, labour.
In comparison to Malthus, the notion of value to the productive process was also adopted by Mill, as he saw value in objects produced by workers. Mill saw workers engaged in the manufacturing sector as being truly productive:
“We should regard all labour as productive which is employed in creating permanent utilities, whether embodied in human beings, or in any animate or inanimate objects”[And] labour expended in the acquisition of manufacturing skills, I class as productive” (Mill, 1886 v.1, p.61).

In reverence to human capital, Malthus also put forth the idea that one must produce an object to be productive:

“no small portion of it is employed in acquiring the skill necessary to the production and distribution of material objects, as in the case of most apprenticeships” (Malthus, 1836 p.37).

However unlike Malthus, Mill was ignorant of the idea that unproductive labour has a positive impact on economic growth in capitalist economies. Those individuals in society who are identified as unproductive labour include those who attend to activities in the private service, such as capitalists, landowners, government ministers, executives, musicians, teachers, priests and so on. It also includes those who perform activities in the home, such as menial servants and child rearing. According to Malthus, “unproductive” workers are valuable to the welfare and development of Society:
“that kind of labour which highly useful and important…may conduce indirectly to the production and security of material wealth” (Malthus, 1836 p.35).

Therefore, to Malthus, those who perform activities in the home, such as the upbringing of children and the maintenance of the home are valuable to society and have an indirect impact on production and development.
Having been a cleric from the Church of England, Malthus appreciated the value religious activities have to the development of society. For instance, the Catholic religion exemplify strong “pro-natalist ideologies” with teachings forbidding artificial forms of contraception and abortion. In particular, studies have shown that religious participation by youths has been linked to “a lower probability of substance abuse and juvenile delinquency [and] a lower incidence of depression among some groups” (Lehrer 2004, p.16).
However, Mill was sceptical of the impact religion has on the development of society. Mill is quoted for saying:

“It is…evident that the greater number of missionaries or clergymen a nation maintains, the less it has to expend on other things; while the more it expends judiciously in keeping agriculturalists and manufacturers at work, the more it will have for other purposes” (Mill, 1886 v.1, p.61).

To Mill, spending on the unproductive labour of clergymen will receive no return or benefit to society, whereas maintaining a class of agriculturalists and manufacturers will generate a higher return, which can be allocated to other productive activities, which will again generate a positive return to society.

In terms of the role of government in a capitalist economy, both scholars viewed government as being productive indirectly. In comparison to Malthus, Mill was a right wing economist and believed that the government has an important role to play in society:

“The labour of officers of government…is indispensable to the prosperity of industry, [and] must be classed as productive, even of material wealth, because without it, material wealth, in anything like its present abundance, could not exist. Such labour may be said to be productive indirectly” (Mill, 1886 v.1, p.61).

Thus both acknowledged that some form of Government was critical to the long term dynamics of capitalism. Without government, society would not have been able to generate such high material welfare and gain. Empirical evidence has indicated that non-military government capital is a significant input in the production function and has a high output elasticity of .39 (Karras & Evans 1994).

With respect to labour, both Mill and Malthus distinguished between productive and unproductive (U/P) consumption, including their effects on growth and development in capitalism. Mill made a distinction of productive and unproductive consumption to the labourer being:

“What they consume in keeping up or improving their health, strength, and capacities of work, or in rearing other productive labourers to succeed them, is productive consumption. But consumption on pleasures or luxuries, whether by the idle or by the industrious, since production is neither its object nor is in any way advanced by it, must be reckoned unproductive” (Mill 1848, book 1, chapter 3).

Mill saw unproductive consumption as having an undesirable influence to the wealth creation and growth of society, regarding U/P consumption as being undesirable and will only impoverish society:

“Whether they like it or not, the unproductive expenditure of individuals will pro tanto, tend to impoverish the community, and only their productive expenditure will enrich it” (Mill, 1886 Vol. 1, p.5).

Malthus on the other hand regarded U/P consumption as necessary to capitalism, particularly when productivity and innovation are at their utmost levels, which would ensure value and profit to expand:

“It would at once confound the effects even of production and consumption, as there is certainly no indirect cause of production so powerful as consumption” (Malthus 1836, p.45).

Another major topic studied by both economists was decreasing returns to agriculture and its effect on growth and development in a capitalist nation. This idea that agriculture would be subject to increasing returns, due to rising population unless supported by an increase in productivity, was adopted by Malthus.

Malthus contended that when the less fertile soil is used, the marginal product declines, while the rent increases due to inequality in the lands. Thus, the marginal expansion declines and output increases arithmetically, but at a diminishing rate. Therefore due to decreasing returns to agriculture, and population rising in a geometrical progression without any checks to it, society would not be able to survive in a population-food supply struggle.

In regards to population and food supply, Malthus said:
“The power of the population being…so much superior, the increase of the human species can only be kept down to the level of the means of subsistence by the constant operation of the strong law of necessity, acting as a check upon the greater power” (Malthus 1970, p.21).

This “subsistence” level is the minimum level to reach survival. Malthus” population dilemma posed a theoretical question on the checks to population and a practical question concerning solutions to the problem. There were positive and preventative checks. The positive checks to population growth included war, famine and pestilence. These tended to have an adverse impact. According to Malthus, the ultimate positive check to population is limited food supply. In Malthus” own words:

“It has been inferred, that and increase of population in any state, not cultivated to the utmost, will tend rather to augment than diminish the relative plenty of the whole society”a country cannot easily become too populous for agriculture; because agriculture has the signal property of producing food in proportion to the number of consumers” (Malthus 1809 Vol. 2 p. 275).

The preventative checks included moral restraint, contraception and abortion. These tended to have a positive impact on procreation. Mill also believed that contraception needed to be encouraged to keep a hold on population. However, Mill was against abortion or immorality, even having been jailed for distributing birth control pamphlets.

Malthus believed that the tendency to procreate would in fact rule over the cumulative effect of the checks to population growth. Therefore, unless the positive checks were greater than the preventative checks, the human population would thus be brought to a “subsistence level” or just to a means of survival.

In Scandinavia for example, poverty has been eliminated locally, and even death from infectious disease is rare. This would not have occurred without low birth rates that have characterized the region. Not only in Scandinavia, but in other regions, low birth rates and death rates, strong education, a stable population, control of infectious disease and elimination of poverty and war are linked together in a “mutually re-enforcing circle of cause and effect” (Avery 2005, p.25). By contrast in many third world cities, contaminated water, polluted air, high birth rates, increasing population, poverty and resurgence of infectious disease are linked in a “self perpetuating causal loop” (Avery 2005, 25) with the result being a vicious circle.

Malthus failed to look at other checks that may have forestalled his gloomy conclusion. He had failed to separate sex and procreation. In the second half of the 20th century and well into the 21st century, advances have been made in modern birth control. Couples can have less constraint in regards to sexual activities. Therefore these additional checks can reduce the disparity between multiplication of the species and growth of the food supply.
Mill also adopted Malthus” population principle, adding further that the population must:

“work harder, or eat less, or obtain their usual food by sacrificing a portion of their customary comforts” (Mill Vol 4, p.109).
Mill here was saying the reality is, if society wants to maintain their usual way of living or maintain their “customary comforts” they must sacrifice either their time, consumption of goods, or activities that they have become accustomed to.

Malthus, like other classical economists of his time, was a pessimist. He envisioned that the capitalist system in the long run would face “pressure of population…decreasing response to human effort to increase supply of food and basic materials, limits to technical progress, subsistence wages, and falling profits” (Zweig, 1979 p.511) believing that in the end, technological improvement would not be sufficient to counteract the law of diminishing returns and depletion of natural resources.

Mill however was less sceptical about the capitalist system coming to a means of subsistence. Despite the classical economists such as Malthus and Smith realising that the growth of wealth could not continue indefinitely, only John Stuart Mill believed that a collapse of the system could be avoided and a stationary state achieved.

Economist Adam Smith described the stationary state as a situation of zero growth, in which the stock of goods is always the same, that is the quantity consumed is equal to the quantity supplied in the same time period, and rewards to the factors of production are at a minimum. The idea that the capitalist system would come to an end at the stationary state was feared by many classical economists including Malthus and Smith

According to Mill, once the stationary state was reached:

“every increase in the demand for food, occasioned by increased population”unless there is a simultaneous improvement in production, diminish the share which on a fair division would fall to each individual” (Mill Vol 4, p.109).
Here Mill was saying that the demand for food must be balanced with supply. Mill described his ideal stationary state in book 4 of his Principles of Political Economy:
“The density of population necessary to enable mankind to obtain all advantages of co-operation and social intercourse has in all the most populous countries been attained. It is no good for a man to be kept perforce at all times in the presence of his species. A world from which solitude is extirpated is a very poor ideal . . . With every rood of land brought into cultivation . . . every hedgerow or superfluous tree rooted out, every flowery waste or dell ploughed up . . . there is no satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature. If the earth must lose that great portion of pleasantness which it owes to things that the unlimited increase of wealth would extirpate from it, for the mere purpose of enabling it to support a larger, but not better or a happier population, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that they will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compels them to it.” (Mill, 1848, book 4, ch.6).

However to reach the stationary state required extensive social changes and reforms, which Malthus and the other classical economists did not realise. Mill is quoted as saying:

“improvement here must be understood in a wide sense, including not only new industrial inventions”but improvements in institutions, education, opinions, and human affairs generally” (Mill, 1886 Vol. 1, p.105).
Mill argued that we need to educate society about contraception; that we need social reform and change. He further added:

“It is scarcely necessary to remark that a stationary condition of capital and population implies no stationary state of human improvement. . . Only thus can the conquests made from the powers of nature by the intellect and energy of scientific discoverers, become the property of the species and the means of improving and elevating the universal lot” (Mill, 1848, book 4, ch.6).
Assuming that the capitalist system keeps a restraint on population, Mill held a relatively optimistic view of the stationary state, in that it would be characterised by technical progress and past capital accumulation, which Mill extends into in his book, further saying:

“I am inclined to believe that the stationary state would be, on the whole, a very considerable improvement on our present condition. I know why it should be a matter of congratulation that persons who are already richer than any one needs to be, should have doubled their means of consuming things which give little or no pleasure except as representative of wealth”It is only in the backward countries of the world that increased wealth is still an important object: In most advanced countries, what is economically needed is a better distribution to relieve poverty, of which one indispensable means is a strict restraint on population” (Mill, 1848, book 4, ch.6).

In his autobiography, Mill admits that this will all require a transformation of society and a character change in all classes of the population (Zweig, 1979 p.519). For instance, Mill was a strong advocate of contraception and safe sex attitudes of society. The only way to change people”s attitudes according to Mill was social change.

An idea that many classical economists held was that supply creates its own demand, known as Say”s Law. Attributed to the French economist, Jean-Baptiste Say, this law states that a market-capitalist economy will tend towards full employment of resources if there are flexible prices, interest rates and wages. Thus, according to Say”s law, it is inherently impossible that there will be long term crises of a market capitalist system.

Malthus rejected the idea of supply creating its own demand, arguing that supply reduces profit:

“It is impossible that the increased quantity of commodities, obtained by the increased number of productive labourers, should find purchasers, without such a fall of price as would probably sink their value below that of the outlay, or, at least, so reduce profits as very greatly to diminish both the power and the will to save” (Malthus, 1836 p.315).

Mill, like most economists, attached great importance to the role of capital and capital accumulation. Mill argued that given Say”s law, increased levels of output and employment depend on the accumulation and investment of capital. The portion of investment in capital, that is, result of saving, is required to tide labour over a “discontinuous production period” (Ekelund & Hebert, 1990 p.170). This was known as the wages-fund doctrine:

“It is often forgotten that the people of a country are maintained and have their wants supplied, not by the produce of present labour, but of past. They consume what has been produced, not what is about to be produced. Now, of what has been produced, a part is only allocated to the support of productive labour; and there will not and cannot be more of that labour than the portion so allotted (which is the capital of the country) can feed, and provide with the materials and instruments of production” (Mill 1848, p. 64).

Stated simply, it was not a temporary state of affairs, but rather the unemployment of resources, was not considered probable because of Says Law (Ekelund and Hebert, 1990, p.170). Saving would automatically be turned into investment, another form of spending and a general glut would not occur. Thus the saving of those who do not consume all their income will be otherwise utilised by capitalists in purchasing factories, machines and the like to an expansion of value. Saving then becomes net investment:

S = In

So Mill agrees with Say”s Law, that what is saved will be invested. Mill only assumed a system whereby the supply curve was vertical, where we are always at full capacity.

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Author: Matthew Coppola, Managing Director of Client Centric.

Client Centric – Executive Employment Solutions are a boutique employment services company specialising in executive and managerial level roles. We are committed to helping you succeed in your career and to do this we have the best staff on board to help you reach your goals. Our team are highly experienced and knowledgeable in a broad range of areas and expertise, so you get the best advice. We service clients all over Australia including Perth, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Hobart.  We provide Resume Writing ServicesCover Letter WritingLinkedIn ProfilesAddressing Selection Criteria’s and we also offer a Job Application Service where we apply for jobs on your behalf and all you do is wait for the call. Please visit our website at www.clientcentric.com.au to find out more.